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Benefit of supplementary fat plus protein counting as compared with conventional carbohydrate counting for insulin bolus calculation in children with pump therapy


Corresponding author:

Olga Kordonouri, MD

Diabetes Centre for Children and Adolescents

Kinder- und Jugendkrankenhaus

Auf der Bult

Janusz-Korczak-Allee 12

30173 Hannover


Tel: +49 511 8115 3340;

fax: +49 511 8115 3334;




To investigate carbohydrate (CARB) and supplementary fat/protein (CFP) counting using normal and dual-wave bolus in pump therapy of children and young people with type 1 diabetes (T1D).

Study design and methods

A randomized clinical trial was conducted in 42 patients (age 6–21 yr) with T1D for at least 1 yr (5.2 ± 3.1 yr, mean ± SD) and pump therapy for at least 3 months (3.3 ± 1.8 yr). Standardized test meals (pizza-salami; 50% carbohydrate, 34% fat, 16% protein; corresponding to 33% of age-adjusted daily energy requirement) were given at lunch time on four different days with normal and dual-wave bolus using CARB and CFP counting in a randomized sequence. Sensor-augmented pumps were used for continuous glucose monitoring of 6-h postprandial glucose profiles. Intra-individual comparisons of glucose parameters [area under the curve (AUC) mg/dL ×6 h; average glucose, AV mg/dL] were performed.


Using CFP counting, 6-h postprandial glucose AUC (805 ± 261) and AV (137.8 ± 46.2) were significantly lower than AUC (926 ± 285) and AV (160.5 ± 51.9) by CARB counting (p < 0.001, each). CFP counting led to significantly lower postprandial glucose parameters independently from the kind of bolus (normal bolus: ΔAUC 169, p < 0.001; ΔAV 30.6, p < 0.001/dual-wave bolus: ΔAUC 73, p = 0.045, ΔAV 14.8, p = 0.033). Postprandial hypoglycemia episodes (<70 mg/dL) occurred more frequently in CFP than in CARB counting (35.7% vs. 9.5%, p < 0.001). No severe hypoglycemia was reported.


In patients with long-term T1D, meal-related insulin dosing based on carbohydrate plus fat/protein counting reduces the postprandial glucose levels ( NCT01400659).