Guidelines for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder: are there discrepancies between European and North American recommendations?


  • The author of this paper does not have any commercial associations that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with this manuscript.

Per Vestergaard, Prof. Dr. Med. Sc., The Central Unit, Aarhus University Psychiatric Hospital, DK-8240 Risskov, Denmark.
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Practice policies and guidelines for the long-term management of bipolar patients have appeared in many parts of Europe and North America. Although recommendations in most areas do concur remarkable differences are apparent both regarding diagnostic practice and pharmacological management. Differences among recommendations point towards professional and cultural differences between Europe and North America but also towards areas with unresolved research questions and lack of scientific evidence.