DJK is a consultant to Servier Amerique and serves on the advisory boards of Pfizer, Inc., Eli Lilly & Company, Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. VJG is a consultant to Pfizer Italia. PRH has received grants/research support from MH52247 – Mental Health Intervention Research Center: Late Life and MH30915 – MHIRC for Mood and Anxiety Disorders. CB has received grants/research support from NIMH MH60763 – Improving Primary Care Services: Personal Illness Models. EF has no reported conflict of interest.
African-American participants in a bipolar disorder registry: clinical and treatment characteristics
Version of Record online: 14 JAN 2005
Volume 7, Issue 1, pages 82–88, February 2005
How to Cite
Kupfer, D. J., Frank, E., Grochocinski, V. J., Houck, P. R. and Brown, C. (2005), African-American participants in a bipolar disorder registry: clinical and treatment characteristics. Bipolar Disorders, 7: 82–88. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2004.00163.x
- Issue online: 14 JAN 2005
- Version of Record online: 14 JAN 2005
- Received 19 December 2003, revised and accepted for publication 30 August 2004
- bipolar disorder;
Objectives: The goal of this paper was to compare clinical characteristics and treatment history of African-American and Caucasian participants in a bipolar disorder registry.
Methods: The Western Pennsylvania Bipolar Disorder Registry used several recruitment methods to reach individuals self-identified as having bipolar disorder. Individuals who contacted and joined the registry completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on clinical characteristics and treatment history. A sample of 2,718 registry participants was analyzed in order to compare these characteristics and history by race.
Results: African-Americans in the registry reported a greater number of inpatient hospitalizations (9.8 versus 4.4) than Caucasians, as well as a higher suicide attempt rate (64% versus 49%). African-American participants were more likely to report a family member with schizophrenia. With respect to psychotropic medication, African-Americans were less likely to report taking antimanic medication or benzodiazepines, but more likely to report taking antipsychotics than Caucasians.
Conclusions: The present findings reinforce previous reports regarding the chronicity and severity of bipolar disorder among African-Americans. They also support previous studies that found high rates of attempted suicide among African-Americans with bipolar disorder. These findings provide further impetus for specific community and mental health services delivery efforts to reduce barriers to early accurate diagnosis and to appropriate ambulatory treatment for bipolar disorder.