The authors of this paper do not have any commercial associations that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with this manuscript.
Functional outcome in bipolar disorder: the role of clinical and cognitive factors
Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2007
Volume 9, Issue 1-2, pages 103–113, February & March 2007
How to Cite
Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Torrent, C., Sanchez-Moreno, J., Goikolea, J., Salamero, M., Malhi, G., Gonzalez-Pinto, A., Daban, C., Alvarez-Grandi, S., Fountoulakis, K., Kaprinis, G., Tabares-Seisdedos, R. and Ayuso-Mateos, J. (2007), Functional outcome in bipolar disorder: the role of clinical and cognitive factors. Bipolar Disorders, 9: 103–113. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00327.x
- Issue online: 12 FEB 2007
- Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2007
- Received 11 January 2005, revised and accepted for publication 2 February 2006
- bipolar disorder;
- cognitive impairment;
- functional outcome;
- occupational adaptation;
- psychosocial functioning;
- verbal memory
Introduction: Few studies have examined the clinical, neuropsychological and pharmacological factors involved in the functional outcome of bipolar disorder despite the gap between clinical and functional recovery.
Methods: A sample of 77 euthymic bipolar patients were included in the study. Using an a priori definition of low versus good functional outcome, based on the psychosocial items of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF, DSM-IV), and taking also into account their occupational adaptation, the patients were divided into two groups: good or low occupational functioning. Patients with high (n = 46) and low (n = 31) functioning were compared on several clinical, neuropsychological and pharmacological variables and the two patient groups were contrasted with healthy controls (n = 35) on cognitive performance.
Results: High- and low-functioning groups did not differ with respect to clinical variables. However, bipolar patients in general showed poorer cognitive performance than healthy controls. This was most evident in low-functioning patients and in particular on verbal memory and executive function measures.
Conclusions: Low-functioning patients were cognitively more impaired than highly functioning patients on verbal recall and executive functions. The variable that best predicted psychosocial functioning in bipolar patients was verbal memory.