The authors of this paper do not have any commercial associations that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with this manuscript.
Manic symptoms and impulsivity during bipolar depressive episodes
Article first published online: 5 APR 2007
Volume 9, Issue 3, pages 206–212, May 2007
How to Cite
Swann, A. C., Gerard Moeller, F., Steinberg, J. L., Schneider, L., Barratt, E. S. and Dougherty, D. M. (2007), Manic symptoms and impulsivity during bipolar depressive episodes. Bipolar Disorders, 9: 206–212. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00357.x
- Issue published online: 5 APR 2007
- Article first published online: 5 APR 2007
- Received 7 July 2005, revised and accepted for publication 20 March 2006
- alcohol abuse;
- bipolar disorder;
- mixed depression;
- mixed state;
Objectives: In contrast to the extensive literature on the frequent occurrence of depressive symptoms in manic patients, there is little information about manic symptoms in bipolar depressions. Impulsivity is a prominent component of the manic syndrome, so manic features during depressive syndromes may be associated with impulsivity and its consequences, including increased risk of substance abuse and suicidal behavior. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of manic symptoms and their relationships to impulsivity and clinical characteristics in patients with bipolar depressive episodes.
Methods: In 56 bipolar I or II depressed subjects, we investigated the presence of manic symptoms, using Mania Rating Scale (MRS) scores from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS), and examined its association with other psychiatric symptoms (depression, anxiety, and psychosis), age of onset, history of alcohol and/or other substance abuse and of suicidal behavior, and measures of impulsivity.
Results: MRS ranged from 0 to 29 (25th–75th percentile, range 4–13), and correlated significantly with anxiety and psychosis, but not with depression, suggesting the superimposition of a separate psychopathological mechanism. Impulsivity and history of substance abuse, head trauma, or suicide attempt increased with increasing MRS. Receiver-operating curve analysis showed that MRS could divide patients into two groups based on history of alcohol abuse and suicide attempt, with an inflection point corresponding to an MRS score of 6.
Discussion: Even modest manic symptoms during bipolar depressive episodes were associated with greater impulsivity, and with histories of alcohol abuse and suicide attempts. Manic symptoms during depressive episodes suggest the presence of a potentially dangerous combination of depression and impulsivity.