The authors of this paper do not have any commercial associations that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with this manuscript.
Changes in insight among patients with bipolar I disorder: a 2-year prospective study
Article first published online: 5 APR 2007
Volume 9, Issue 3, pages 238–242, May 2007
How to Cite
Yen, C.-F., Chen, C.-S., Ko, C.-H., Yen, J.-Y. and Huang, C.-F. (2007), Changes in insight among patients with bipolar I disorder: a 2-year prospective study. Bipolar Disorders, 9: 238–242. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00407.x
- Issue published online: 5 APR 2007
- Article first published online: 5 APR 2007
- Received 4 March 2005, revised and accepted for publication 7 July 2006
- bipolar depression;
- bipolar disorder;
Objectives: The aim of this 2-year prospective study was to examine changes in insight among bipolar patients with different clinical courses.
Methods: A cohort of 65 patients with bipolar I disorder in remission was recruited for this study. They received six follow-up assessments over a 2-year period. The Schedule of Assessment of Insight-Expanded version (SAI-E) was used to determine their levels of insight, while the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) were used to determine affective symptoms. Types of changes in insight among bipolar patients were analyzed according to the different clinical courses during the 2-year follow-up period.
Results: Insight in consistently stable patients was steady during the 2-year period. Insight decreased during the manic period in patients with only a single manic episode as well as in those with repeated manic episodes. However, insight returned to the pre-episode level for patients with only a single manic episode, but did not for most of the patients with repeated episodes. No changes in insight were observed during depressive episodes for either patients with a single or those with repeated depressive episodes.
Conclusions: The types of insight changes among bipolar patients during the 2-year period were various and depended on the different clinical courses. Frequent mood disturbance episodes may cause patient insight to deteriorate.