The authors of this paper do not have any commercial associations that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with this manuscript.
Creatine monohydrate in resistant depression: a preliminary study
Article first published online: 2 NOV 2007
Volume 9, Issue 7, pages 754–758, November 2007
How to Cite
Roitman, S., Green, T., Osher, Y., Karni, N. and Levine, J. (2007), Creatine monohydrate in resistant depression: a preliminary study. Bipolar Disorders, 9: 754–758. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00532.x
- Issue published online: 2 NOV 2007
- Article first published online: 2 NOV 2007
- Received 9 November 2005, revised and accepted for publication 24 August 2006
- bipolar depression;
- bipolar disorder;
- creatine monohydrate;
- major depressive disorder;
Objectives: Creatine plays a pivotal role in brain energy homeostasis, and altered cerebral energy metabolism may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Oral creatine supplementation may modify brain high-energy phosphate metabolism in depressed subjects.
Methods: Eight unipolar and two bipolar patients with treatment-resistant depression were treated for four weeks with 3–5 g/day of creatine monohydrate in an open add-on design. Outcome measures were the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and Clinical Global Impression scores, recorded at baseline and at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Results: One patient improved considerably after one week and withdrew. Both bipolar patients developed hypomania/mania. For the remaining seven patients, all scale scores significantly improved. Adverse reactions were mild and transitory.
Conclusions: This small, preliminary, open study of creatine monohydrate suggests a beneficial effect of creatine augmentation in unipolar depression, but possible precipitation of a manic switch in bipolar depression.