The authors of this paper do not have any commercial associations that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with this manuscript.
Rapid switching of mood in families with familial bipolar disorder
Article first published online: 4 JUL 2008
© 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Munksgaard
Volume 10, Issue 5, pages 597–606, August 2008
How to Cite
Nwulia, E. A., Zandi, P. P., McInnis, M. G., Raymond DePaulo Jr, J. and MacKinnon, D. F. (2008), Rapid switching of mood in families with familial bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 10: 597–606. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2008.00600.x
- Issue published online: 4 JUL 2008
- Article first published online: 4 JUL 2008
- Received 1 September 2006, revised and accepted for publication 2 July 2007
- antidepressant activation;
- bipolar disorder;
- bipolar linkage;
- rapid cycling;
- rapid switching of mood
Objective: Rapid switching of moods in bipolar disorder has been associated with early age at onset, panic comorbidity, and suicidality. This study aims to confirm these associations and investigate other potential correlates of rapid switching of mood using families from a multisite bipolar linkage study.
Methods: The subjects were comprised of 1,143 probands and relatives with diagnosis of bipolar disorder. All subjects were interviewed directly with a standard diagnostic instrument, and all subjects who met criteria for bipolar disorder were asked if their moods had ever switched rapidly.
Results: Individuals with rapid mood switching had significantly earlier age at onset (18 versus 21 years, p < 0.00001), higher comorbid anxiety (47% versus 26%, p < 0.00001) and substance use disorders (52% versus 42%, p = 0.0006), higher rate of violent behavior (6% versus 3%, p < 0.004), suicidal behavior (46% versus 31%, p < 0.00001), and nonsuicidal self-harm (13% versus 6%, p < 0.0002). Multiple logistic regression analysis found significant net effects on rapid mood switching for early emergence of symptoms [odds ratio (OR) = 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45–0.85]; anxiety comorbidity (OR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.34–3.98); and hypersensitivity to antidepressants (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.49–2.83) as the strongest predictors.
Conclusions: This confirms earlier reports associating rapid switching with a more complex clinical course, in particular early emergence of bipolar symptomatology, antidepressant activation, and anxiety comorbidity. These results support a clinical differentiation of bipolar disorder into subtypes based on symptom stability.