Joint first authorship.
Memory functioning in familial bipolar I disorder patients and their relatives
Article first published online: 25 FEB 2009
© 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Munksgaard
Volume 11, Issue 2, pages 209–214, March 2009
How to Cite
Quraishi, S., Walshe, M., McDonald, C., Schulze, K., Kravariti, E., Bramon, E., Morris, R. G., Murray, R. M. and Toulopoulou, T. (2009), Memory functioning in familial bipolar I disorder patients and their relatives. Bipolar Disorders, 11: 209–214. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2008.00661.x
The authors of this paper do not have any commercial associations that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with this manuscript.
- Issue published online: 25 FEB 2009
- Article first published online: 25 FEB 2009
- Received 10 December 2007, revised and accepted for publication 23 May 2008
- bipolar I disorder;
- family study;
- first-degree relatives;
- memory functioning;
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the memory function of patients with familial bipolar I disorder (BD I) who had shown psychotic features, their non-psychotic, non-bipolar first-degree relatives, and normal controls.
Method: We assessed 38 patients with a lifetime diagnosis of BD I who had experienced psychotic symptoms, 49 of their non-psychotic, non-bipolar first-degree relatives, and 44 controls. Patients and relatives were from families multiply affected with functional psychotic illness. A five-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Revised and three Wechsler Memory Scale subtests were administered to all participants.
Results: BD I patients showed deficits in verbal memory and verbal learning but not in visual memory. Compared to controls, relatives showed worse verbal learning at a statistically significant or suggestive level and performed significantly worse in both immediate and delayed verbal memory. Similar to patients, there were no differences between the relatives and control group for visual memory.
Conclusion: Impaired verbal memory and learning were found in patients and their relatives. These deficits may represent candidate endophenotypic markers for bipolar disorder.