AY has served as a speaker for Astellas Pharma, Inc., and GlaxoSmithKline K.K. SN has served as a speaker for Asahi Kasei Pharma, Astellas Pharma, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline K.K., Meiji Seika Kaisha, Ltd., Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation, and Pfizer Japan, Inc. MN, MM, and YT declare that they have no conflicts of interest to report.
Difference in binocular rivalry rate between patients with bipolar I and bipolar II disorders
Article first published online: 10 JUL 2009
© 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S
Volume 11, Issue 5, pages 539–546, August 2009
How to Cite
Nagamine, M., Yoshino, A., Miyazaki, M., Takahashi, Y. and Nomura, S. (2009), Difference in binocular rivalry rate between patients with bipolar I and bipolar II disorders. Bipolar Disorders, 11: 539–546. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2009.00719.x
- Issue published online: 10 JUL 2009
- Article first published online: 10 JUL 2009
- Received 2 May 2008, revised and accepted for publication 10 February 2009
Vol. 11, Issue 6, 672, Article first published online: 10 AUG 2009
- binocular rivalry;
- bipolar disorder;
- bipolar I disorder;
- bipolar II disorder;
Objective: When dissimilar figures are presented to each eye individually, perception alternates spontaneously between each monocular view. This phenomenon, known as binocular rivalry, has been used as a powerful tool to investigate conscious visual awareness. Of clinical relevance, Pettigrew and Miller (Proc Biol Sci 1998; 265: 2141-2148) found slow perceptual alternation rates in patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I). For a better understanding of differences between BD-I and bipolar II disorder (BD-II), we examined whether perceptual alternation rates of binocular rivalry differ between the two subtypes of bipolar disorder.
Methods: The subjects comprised 25 healthy controls, 11 patients with BD-I, and 17 patients with BD-II. They underwent binocular rivalry examination. One-way analysis of variance was conducted to determine differences in the phase duration of binocular rivalry between the control, BD-I, and BD-II groups.
Results: Significant differences were observed in the mean phase duration of binocular rivalry between the groups. Although the medication administered did not differ significantly between the BD-I and BD-II patients, the phase duration was significantly longer among the BD-I patients than the BD-II patients and controls, whereas no significant difference was observed in the phase duration between the BD-II patients and controls.
Conclusion: The present results reveal a significant difference in the mean phase duration of binocular rivalry between subjects with BD-I and those with BD-II, suggesting the presence of some neurobiological difference between these two subtypes of bipolar disorder.