The relationship between religious involvement and clinical status of patients with bipolar disorder

Authors

  • Mario Cruz,

    1. Advanced Center for Intervention and Services, Research for Late-life Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA
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  • Harold Alan Pincus,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Irving Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY
    2. RAND Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA
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  • Deborah E Welsh,

    1. VA Ann Arbor National Serious Mental Illness Treatment Research and Evaluation Center, Ann Arbor, MI
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  • Devra Greenwald,

    1. VA Pittsburgh Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, Pittsburgh, PA
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  • Elaine Lasky,

    1. VA Pittsburgh Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, Pittsburgh, PA
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  • Amy M Kilbourne

    1. VA Ann Arbor National Serious Mental Illness Treatment Research and Evaluation Center, Ann Arbor, MI
    2. Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
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  • The authors of this paper do not have any commercial associations that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with this manuscript.

Corresponding author:
Mario Cruz, M.D.
Advanced Center for Intervention and Services
Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
3811 O’Hara Street
Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Fax: 412-383-5412
E-mail: cruzm@upmc.edu

Abstract

Cruz M, Pincus HA, Welsh DE, Greenwald D, Lasky E, Kilbourne AM. The relationship between religious involvement and clinical status of patients with bipolar disorder.
Bipolar Disord 2010: 12: 68–76. © 2010 The Authors.
Journal compilation © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Objective:  Religion and spirituality are important coping strategies in depression but have been rarely studied within the context of bipolar disorder. The present study assessed the association between different forms of religious involvement and the clinical status of individuals treated for bipolar disorder.

Methods:  A cross-sectional observation study of follow-up data from a large cohort study of patients receiving care for bipolar disorder (n = 334) at an urban Veterans Affairs mental health clinic was conducted. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between public (frequency of church attendance), private (frequency of prayer/meditation), as well as subjective forms (influence of beliefs on life) of religious involvement and mixed, manic, depressed, and euthymic states when demographic, anxiety, alcohol abuse, and health indicators were controlled.

Results:  Multivariate analyses found significant associations between higher rates of prayer/meditation and participants in a mixed state [odds ratio (OR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10–1.52, chi square = 9.42, df = 14, p < 0.05], as well as lower rates of prayer/meditation and participants who were euthymic (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.72–0.99, chi square = 4.60, df = 14, p < 0.05). Depression and mania were not associated with religious involvement.

Conclusions:  Compared to patients with bipolar disorder in depressed, manic, or euthymic states, patients in mixed states have more active private religious lives. Providers should assess the religious activities of individuals with bipolar disorder in mixed states and how they may complement/deter ongoing treatment. Future longitudinal studies linking bipolar states, religious activities, and treatment-seeking behaviors are needed.

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