• 1
    Blader JC, Carlson GA. Increased rates of bipolar disorder diagnoses among U.S. child, adolescent, and adult inpatients, 1996–2004. Biol Psychiatry 2007; 62: 107114.
  • 2
    Harpaz-Rotem I, Rosenheck R. Changes in outpatient psychiatric diagnosis in privately insured children and adolescents from 1995 to 2000. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2004; 34: 329340.
  • 3
    Moreno C, Laje G, Blanco C, Jiang H, Schmidt AB, Olfson M. National trends in the outpatient diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder in youth. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64: 10321039.
  • 4
    Soutullo CA, Chang KD, Diez-Suarez A et al. Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: international perspective on epidemiology and phenomenology. Bipolar Disord 2005; 7: 497506.
  • 5
    Holtmann M, Bölte S, Goth K et al. Prevalence of the Child Behavior Checklist-pediatric bipolar disorder phenotype in a German general population sample. Bipolar Disord 2007; 9: 895900.
  • 6
    Lazaro L, Castro-Fornieles J, De La Fuente JE, Baeza I, Morer A, Pàmias M. Differences between prepubertal- versus adolescent-onset bipolar disorder in a Spanish clinical sample. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007; 16: 510516.
  • 7
    Youngstrom E, Youngstrom JK, Starr M. Bipolar diagnoses in community mental health: Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist profiles and patterns of comorbidity. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 58: 569575.
  • 8
    Biederman J, Faraone SV, Wozniak J et al. Clinical correlates of bipolar disorder in a large, referred sample of children and adolescents. J Psychiatr Res 2005; 39: 611622.
  • 9
    Holtmann M, Goth K, Wöckel L, Poustka F, Bölte S. CBCL-pediatric bipolar disorder phenotype: severe ADHD or bipolar disorder? J Neural Transm 2008; 115: 155161.
  • 10
    Böhm K, Taubmann D. Information system of the Federal Health Monitoring System. An online database offering a wide range of health information. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2004; 47: 457463.
  • 11
    World Health Organization. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Clinical Descriptions and Guidelines. Geneva: WHO, 1992.
  • 12
    Statistisches Bundesamt. Bevölkerung und Erwerbstä-tigkeit. Bevölkerungsfortschreibung 2007. Fachserie 1 Reihe 1.3. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt, 2007.
  • 13
    Fleiss JL, Levin B, Paik MC. Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions, 3rd edn. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
  • 14
    Case BG, Olfson M, Marcus SC, Siegel C. Trends in the inpatient mental health treatment of children and adolescents in US community hospitals between 1990 and 2000. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64: 8996.
  • 15
    Figueroa R, Harman J, Engberg J. Use of claims data to examine the impact of length of inpatient psychiatric stay on readmission rate. Psychiatr Serv 2004; 55: 560565.
  • 16
    Reichart CG, Nolen WA. Earlier onset of bipolar disorder in children by antidepressants or stimulants? An hypothesis. J Affect Disord 2004; 78: 8184.
  • 17
    Soutullo CA, DelBello MP, Ochsner JE et al. Severity of bipolarity in hospitalized manic adolescents with and without a history of stimulant or antidepressant treatment. J Affect Disord 2002; 70: 323327.
  • 18
    Schwabe U, Paffrath D, eds. Arzneiverordnungs – Report 2008. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2008.
  • 19
    Schubert I, Köster I, Lehmkuhl G. Changes in the prescribing of antipsychotic drugs and methylphenidate to children and adolescents between 2000 and 2006. Data of the SHI sample AOK Hessen/KV Hessen. In: Schulte-MarkwortM ed. Abstracts of the XXXI Congress of the German Society of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy. Berlin: Medizinisch Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, 2009: 190.
  • 20
    Carlson GA, Kelly KL. Stimulant rebound: how common is it and what does it mean? J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2003; 13: 137142.
  • 21
    Galanter CA, Carlson GA, Jensen PS et al. Response to methylphenidate in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and manic symptoms in the multimodal treatment study of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder titration trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2003; 13: 123136.
  • 22
    Tillman R, Geller B. Controlled study of switching from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar I disorder phenotype during 6-year prospective follow-up: rate, risk, and predictors. Dev Psychopathol 2006; 18: 10371053.
  • 23
    Fegert JM, Kölch M, Zito JM, Glaeske G, Janhsen K. Antidepressant use in children and adolescents in Germany. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2006; 16: 197206.
  • 24
    Zito JM, Tobi H, De Jong-van den Berg LT et al. Antidepressant prevalence for youths: a multi-national comparison. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2006; 15: 793798.
  • 25
    Meyer T, Koßmann-Böhm S, Schlottke P. Do child psychiatrists in Germany diagnose bipolar disorders in children and adolescents? Results from a survey. Bipolar Disord 2004; 5: 426431.
  • 26
    Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK, Lancrenon S, Hantouche E. Validating the soft bipolar spectrum in the French National EPIDEP Study: the prominence of BP-II ½. J Affect Disord 2006; 96: 207213.
  • 27
    Judd LL, Akiskal HS. The prevalence and disability of bipolar spectrum disorders in the US population: re-analysis of the ECA database taking into account subthreshold cases. J Affect Disord 2003; 73: 123131.
  • 28
    Dubicka B, Carlson GA, Vail A, Harrington R. Prepubertal mania: diagnostic differences between US and UK clinicians. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008; 17: 153161.
  • 29
    Mick E, Biederman J, Pandina G, Faraone SV. A preliminary meta-analysis of the child behavior checklist in pediatric bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2003; 53: 10211027.
  • 30
    Leibenluft E, Charney DS, Towbin KE, Bhangoo RK, Pine DS. Defining clinical phenotypes of juvenile mania. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160: 430437.
  • 31
    Carlson GA. Who are the children with severe mood dysregulation, a.k.a. “rages”? Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164: 11401142.
  • 32
    Wilens TE, Adler LA, Adams J et al. Misuse and diversion of stimulants prescribed for ADHD: a systematic review of the literature. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008; 47: 2131.
  • 33
    Ravens-Sieberer U, Wille N, Erhart M et al. Prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents in Germany: results of the BELLA study within the National Health Interview and Examination Survey. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008; 17 (Suppl 1): 2233.
  • 34
    Donohue JM, Cevasco M, Rosenthal MB. A decade of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 673681.
  • 35
    Lish JD, Dime-Meenan S, Whybrow PC, Price RA, Hirschfeld RM. The National Depressive and Manic-depressive Association (DMDA) survey of bipolar members. J Affect Disord 1994; 31: 281294.
  • 36
    Perlis RH, Miyahara S, Marangell LB et al. Long-term implications of early onset in bipolar disorder: data from the first 1000 participants in the systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD). Biol Psychiatry 2004; 55: 875881.