RJB has recently been a consultant or investigator-initiated research collaborator with Auritec, Biotrofix, IFI, Janssen, JDS, Eli Lilly & Co., Luitpold, Merck, NeuroHealing, Novartis, Pfizer, and SK-BioPharmaceuticals Corporations, but is not a member of pharmaceutical speakers bureaus, nor does he or any family member hold equity positions in biomedical or pharmaceutical corporations. PEH has been a consultant to Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, AstraZeneca, and Tetragenex Corporations. PDH has received research support from AstraZeneca; and has been a recent consultant to Eli Lilly & Co., Johnson & Johnson, Merck, Shire, and Dainippon-Sumitomo/America Corporations. APW has no relevant potential conflicts of interest.
Factors associated with functional recovery in bipolar disorder patients
Article first published online: 10 MAY 2010
© 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S
Volume 12, Issue 3, pages 319–326, May 2010
How to Cite
Wingo, A. P., Baldessarini, R. J., Holtzheimer, P. E. and Harvey, P. D. (2010), Factors associated with functional recovery in bipolar disorder patients. Bipolar Disorders, 12: 319–326. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2010.00808.x
- Issue published online: 10 MAY 2010
- Article first published online: 10 MAY 2010
- Received 24 June 2009, revised and accepted for publication 12 November 2009
- bipolar disorder;
- functional recovery;
- illness duration;
- marital status;
Wingo AP, Baldessarini RJ, Holtzheimer PE, Harvey PD. Factors associated with functional recovery in bipolar disorder patients. Bipolar Disord 2010: 12: 319–326. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Objectives: Among bipolar disorder (BPD) patients, functional recovery, defined as regaining individual premorbid residential and vocational status, is far less common than symptomatic recovery. As several factors have tentatively been implicated in outcomes in BPD, we investigated predictors of functional recovery among BPD patients, including demographic, clinical, and neurocognitive factors.
Methods: We assessed functional recovery status with standardized residential and occupational indices, assessed neurocognitive functioning with performance-based neuropsychological tests, and collected demographic and clinical information for 65 euthymic or residually depressed Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-defined type I or II BPD patients. We examined predictors of functional recovery with multiple logistic regression modeling.
Results: More education (p = 0.006), fewer years of illness (p = 0.037), and being married (p = 0.045) were associated independently with functional recovery, even after controlling for residual depressive symptoms, diagnostic type (I versus II), and psychiatric comorbidity. Functionally unrecovered BPD patients performed less well than recovered patients on verbal fluency (effect size = 0.54, p = 0.03), a measure of executive functioning, but this difference was not significant when adjusted for residual mood symptoms and education.
Conclusions: Among euthymic or mildly depressed BPD patients, functional recovery was associated with more education, being married, and fewer years of illness.