Gopin CB, Burdick KE, DeRosse P, Goldberg TE, Malhotra AK. Emotional modulation of response inhibition in stable patients with bipolar I disorder: a comparison with healthy and schizophrenia subjects.
Bipolar Disord 2011: 13: 164–172. © 2011 The Authors.
Journal compilation © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Objectives: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with impairment in affective processing during depressive and manic states; however, there are limited data as to whether this population exhibits such difficulty during stable periods. We examined the pattern of affective processing in stable BD patients and compared their profile to that of healthy controls (HC) and patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ).
Methods: A total of 336 subjects were administered an Affective Go/No-go test to evaluate target detection of negatively valenced, positively valenced, and neutral stimuli. Accuracy and response bias served as dependent variables in a series of multivariate analyses of covariance to test for group differences.
Results: The BD group relative to the HC group exhibited response biases toward negatively valenced information (p < 0.01). Deficits were also evident in discrimination of and accurate responses to positively valenced information in the BD group versus the HC group (p < 0.05). In contrast to the controls, the SZ group performed poorly on all task components and was less accurate across all conditions regardless of affective valence (p < 0.01). Patients with SZ evidenced reverse biases for positive information, as they were less likely to respond to positive words (p < 0.05) despite comparable response bias on neutral and negative conditions.
Conclusions: Affective processing impairment evident in BD is a feature of the disorder that is present even during stable periods. Prior studies comparing BD with SZ have highlighted clear quantitative but inconsistent qualitative differences in cognitive functioning. Our data suggest that a response bias toward negative stimuli may be a critical and relatively specific feature of BD.