EV has received research grants and has served as a consultant, advisor, or speaker for Almirall, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly & Co., Forest, Geodon Richter, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen-Cilag, Jazz, Lundbeck, Merck, Novartis, Organon, Otsuka, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, Servier, Solvay, Schering-Plough, Takeda, United Biosource Corp., and Wyeth; and has received research funding from the Spanish Ministry of Innovation, the Spanish Ministry of Science and Education, the Stanley Medical Research Institute, and the 7th Framework Program of the European Union. FC has served as an advisory or speaker for AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly & Co., GlaxoSmithKline, Otsuka, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, Tecnifar, and Shire. MV, IP, ARR, CMB, DP, AMAN, AM, and ÍG have no conflicts of interest to report.
Bipolar mixed episodes and antidepressants: a cohort study of bipolar I disorder patients
Article first published online: 28 MAR 2011
© 2011 John Wiley and Sons A/S
Volume 13, Issue 2, pages 145–154, March 2011
How to Cite
Valentí, M., Pacchiarotti, I., Rosa, A. R., Bonnín, C. M., Popovic, D., Nivoli, A. M. A., Murru, A., Grande, Í., Colom, F. and Vieta, E. (2011), Bipolar mixed episodes and antidepressants: a cohort study of bipolar I disorder patients. Bipolar Disorders, 13: 145–154. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2011.00908.x
- Issue published online: 28 MAR 2011
- Article first published online: 28 MAR 2011
- Received 2 August 2010, revised and accepted for publication 18 January 2011
- bipolar disorder;
- mixed episode
Valentí M, Pacchiarotti I, Rosa AR, Bonnín CM, Popovic D, Nivoli AMA, Murru A, Grande Í, Colom F, Vieta E. Bipolar mixed episodes and antidepressants: a cohort study of bipolar I disorder patients. Bipolar Disord 2011: 13: 145–154. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors associated with the occurrence of mixed episodes, characterized by the presence of concomitant symptoms of both affective poles, during the course of illness in bipolar I disorder patients treated with an antidepressant, as well as the role of antidepressants in the course and outcome of the disorder.
Method: We enrolled a sample of 144 patients followed for up to 20 years in the referral Barcelona Bipolar Disorder Program and compared subjects who had experienced at least one mixed episode during the follow-up (n = 60) with subjects who had never experienced a mixed episode (n = 84) regarding clinical variables.
Results: Nearly 40% of bipolar I disorder patients treated with antidepressants experienced at least one mixed episode during the course of their illness; no gender differences were found between two groups. Several differences regarding clinical variables were found between the two groups, but after performing logistic regression analysis, only suicide attempts (p < 0.001), the use of serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (p = 0.041), switch rates (p = 0.010), and years spent ill (p = 0.022) were significantly associated with the occurrence of at least one mixed episode during follow-up.
Conclusions: The occurrence of mixed episodes is associated with a tendency to chronicity, with a poorer outcome, a higher number of depressive episodes, and greater use of antidepressants, especially serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.