BIG has received grant support from Pfizer and honoraria from Purdue Pharma. AS has received grant support from AstraZeneca and Pfizer; and has served on the speakers bureau or received consulting fees or honoraria from AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly & Co., Lundbeck, and Pfizer. S-ML, NZ, L-CC, and CB have no competing conflicts of interest to report.
The burden of obesity among adults with bipolar disorder in the United States
Article first published online: 15 AUG 2011
© 2011 John Wiley and Sons A/S
Volume 13, Issue 4, pages 387–395, June 2011
How to Cite
Goldstein, B. I., Liu, S.-M., Zivkovic, N., Schaffer, A., Chien, L.-C. and Blanco, C. (2011), The burden of obesity among adults with bipolar disorder in the United States. Bipolar Disorders, 13: 387–395. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2011.00932.x
- Issue published online: 15 AUG 2011
- Article first published online: 15 AUG 2011
- Received 15 October 2010, revised and accepted for publication 2 April 2011
- bipolar disorder;
Goldstein BI, Liu S-M, Zivkovic N, Schaffer A, Chien L-C, Blanco C. The burden of obesity among adults with bipolar disorder in the United States. Bipolar Disord 2011: 13: 387–395. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Objectives: Previous studies of clinical samples of adults with bipolar disorder (BD) suggest that there is increased prevalence of obesity and that obesity is associated with greater BD severity. We therefore examined this topic in a representative epidemiologic sample.
Methods: The 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was used to determine whether the prevalence of obesity is elevated among subjects with lifetime BD, and whether obesity is associated with greater severity of BD.
Results: The age-, race-, and sex-adjusted prevalence of obesity was significantly greater among subjects with BD versus controls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45–1.89, p < 0.001]. Obesity among subjects with BD was significantly positively associated with greater age, female sex, comorbid anxiety and medical conditions, and depression-related treatment utilization, and significantly negatively associated with past-year substance use disorder (SUD). In multivariable analyses, obesity among adults with BD was positively associated with age, comorbid anxiety disorders, duration of depressive episodes, and history of hospitalization for depression, and negatively associated with past-year SUD.
Conclusions: The increased prevalence of obesity in BD and its association with illness severity, particularly in relation to depression, cannot be attributed to biases inherent in treatment-seeking samples. Future studies are needed to examine the direction of the observed associations and to develop preventive and treatment strategies seeking to mitigate the burden of obesity in BD.