Macêdo DS, Medeiros CD, Cordeiro RC, Sousa FC, Santos JV, Morais TA, Hyphantis TN, McIntyre RS, Quevedo J, Carvalho AF. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid in an animal model of mania induced by d-amphetamine. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 707–718. © 2012 The Authors.
Journal compilation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S
Objectives: Oxidative stress and neurotrophic factors are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a naturally occurring compound with strong antioxidant properties. The present study investigated ALA effects in an amphetamine-induced model of mania.
Methods: In the reversal protocol, adult mice were first given d-amphetamine (AMPH) 2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) or saline for 14 days. Between days 8 and 14, the animals received ALA 50 or 100 mg/kg orally, lithium (Li) 47.5 mg/kg i.p., or saline. In the prevention paradigm, mice were pretreated with ALA, Li, or saline prior to AMPH. Locomotor activity was assessed in the open-field task. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels were evaluated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC), and striatum (ST). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were measured in the HC.
Results: ALA and Li prevented and reversed the AMPH-induced increase in locomotor activity. Prevention model: ALA and Li co-administration with AMPH prevented the decrease in SOD activity induced by AMPH in the HC and ST, respectively; ALA and Li prevented GSH alteration in the HC and TBARS formation in all brain areas studied. Reversal model: ALA reversed the decrease in SOD activity in the ST. TBARS formation was reversed by ALA and Li in all brain areas. Furthermore, ALA reversed AMPH-induced decreases in BDNF and GSH in the HC.
Conclusions: Our findings showed that ALA, similarly to Li, is effective in reversing and preventing AMPH-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations, providing a rationale for the design of clinical trials investigating ALA’s possible antimanic effect.