Immunomodulation by a combination of nitric oxide and glucocorticoids in a human endotoxin model
Article first published online: 6 SEP 2010
© 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Volume 55, Issue 1, pages 20–27, January 2011
How to Cite
HÅLLSTRÖM, L., BERGHÄLL, E., FROSTELL, C., SOLLEVI, A. and SOOP, A. L. (2011), Immunomodulation by a combination of nitric oxide and glucocorticoids in a human endotoxin model. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 55: 20–27. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-6576.2010.02297.x
- Issue published online: 3 DEC 2010
- Article first published online: 6 SEP 2010
- Accepted for publication 22 July 2010
Background: Inflammatory reactions arise in reaction to a variety of pathogenic insults. The combination of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and glucocorticoids (GC) may attenuate endotoxin-induced inflammatory responses. It has been shown that the combination of iNO (30 p.p.m.) and steroids blunted the inflammatory response in a porcine endotoxin model, but not in humans. Therefore, we investigated whether a clinically ‘maximal’ dose of iNO in combination with GC could modulate the systemic inflammatory response in a human endotoxin model.
Methods: A double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled randomized study including 15 healthy Caucasian volunteers (five females, 10 males). Performed at the Intensive Care Unit in a university hospital. iNO 80 p.p.m. or placebo (nitrogen) was started 2 h before administration of endotoxin (2 ng/kg). Thirty minutes later, GC (2 mg/kg, hydrocortisone) was administered intravenously. Blood samples and clinical signs were collected before and up to 24 h after the endotoxin injection.
Results: Body temperature and heart rate increased significantly subsequent to endotoxin challenge. The plasma levels of IFN–γ, IL-1β, IL-2, 4 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13 and TNFα were markedly elevated. However, HMGB-1 and sRAGE were unaffected. No difference between placebo/GC and iNO/GC treatment was observed in the clinical or cytokine response, neither was there any difference between the first and the second exposure to endotoxin.
Conclusions: Pre-treatment with iNO 80 p.p.m. along with GC (2 mg/kg) administrated after the endotoxin challenge could not modulate the systemic inflammatory response in this model of human experimental inflammation.