Adaptation or exaptation? An experimental test of hypotheses on the origin of salinity tolerance in Bufo calamita
Article first published online: 28 JUL 2005
Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Volume 18, Issue 4, pages 847–855, July 2005
How to Cite
GOMEZ-MESTRE, I. and TEJEDO, M. (2005), Adaptation or exaptation? An experimental test of hypotheses on the origin of salinity tolerance in Bufo calamita. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 18: 847–855. doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2004.00878.x
- Issue published online: 28 JUL 2005
- Article first published online: 28 JUL 2005
- Received 14 September 2004; revised 19 November 2004; accepted 21 November 2004
- 1987. Evolution of the developmental process: irreversibility and redundancy in amphibian metamorphosis. In: Development as an Evolutionary Process (R.Raff & E.Raff, eds), pp. 23–46. Liss, New York.
- 1995. Survival Analysis Using the SAS System. A Practical Guide. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
- 1996. Historical development of adaptation. In: Adaptation (M. R.Rose & G. V.Lauder, eds), pp. 11–53. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
- 1958. An Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
- 2002. Adaptationism – how to carry out an exaptationist program. Behav. Brain Sci. 25: 489–553. , &
- 1993. Evolution of plant pollination systems: hypotheses and tests with the neotropical vine Dalechampia. Evolution 47: 1480–1505.
- 1994. Early evolution of Dalechampia (Euphorbiaceae): insights from phylogeny, biogeography, and comparative ecology. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 81: 302–316.
- 1997. Exaptations link evolution of plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator interactions: a phylogenetic inquiry. Ecology 78: 1661–1672.
- 1994. Investigating the origins of performance advantage: adaptation, exaptation and lineage effects. In: Phylogenetics and Ecology (P.Eggleton & R.Vane-Wright, eds), pp. 123–168. The Linnean Society of London, Academic Press, London.
- 2001. Caudal vertebral development and morphology in three salamanders with complex life cycles (Ambystoma jeffersonianum, Hemidactylium scutatum, and Desmognathus ocoee). J. Morphol. 247: 142–159. &
- 1981. Adaptation of nitrogen metabolism to hypertonic environment in Amphibia. J. Exp. Zool. 215: 335–350.
- 1972. The effect of long-term adaptation to different levels of salinity on urea synthesis and tissue amino acid concentrations in Rana cancrivora. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 43B: 71–82. , &
- 1991. Adaptation reviewed: a phylogenetic methodology for studying character macroevolution. Syst. Zool. 40: 1–18. &
- 1985. Salt tolerances of natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) eggs and larvae from coastal and inland populations in Britain. Herpetol. J. 1: 14–16.
- 2000. Microsatellite analysis of natterjack toad Bufo calamita Laurenti populations: consequences of dispersal from a Pleistocene refugium. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 69: 367–381. &
- 1983. Interpreting geographic variation in life history traits. Am. Zool. 23: 85–97. &
- 2000. Effects of temperature-induced variation in anuran larval growth rate on head width and leg length at metamorphosis. Oecologia 125: 358–361. &
- 1991. Effects of environmentally induced development-rate variation on head and limb morphology in the green tree frog, Hyla cinerea. Am. Nat. 138: 717–728. &
- 2001. From DNA to Diversity. Blackwell Science, London. , &
- 1984. Quantitative genetics and developmental constraints on evolution by selection. J. Theor. Biol. 110: 155–171.
- 1983. Quantitative genetics of development: genetic correlations among age-specific trait values and the evolution of ontogeny. Evolution 37: 895–905. , &
- 2002. Metamorphosis and evolution of feeding behaviour in salamanders of the family Plethodontidae. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 134: 375–400. &
- 1985. Hyperosmotic saline environment alters feeding behavior in the Western toad, Bufo boreas. Copeia 1985: 645–648. , &
- 1994. The effect of hyperosmotic stress on tongue extension in the Western toad, Bufo boreas. J. Herpetol. 28: 261–264. , &
- 1992. Evolution in organisms that change their niches during their life cycle. Am. Nat. 139: 990–1021.
- 1988. Evaluating a hypothesis about heterochrony: larval life-history traits and juvenile hind-limb morphology in Hyla crucifer. Evolution 42: 68–78. , &
- 1986. Natural Selection in the Wild. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
- 1988. The process of evolution: towards a newer synthesis. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 19: 395–421. &
- 1996. Water resources problems in Southern Europe. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark. Topic Report No 15/1996. , &
- 1994. Growth and survival of postmetamorphic toads: interactions among larval history, density and parasitism. Ecology 758: 2264–2274.
- 2003. Local adaptation of an anuran amphibian to osmotically stressful environments. Evolution 57: 1889–1899. &
- 2004. Contrasting patterns of quantitative and neutral genetic variation in locally adapted populations of the natterjack toad, Bufo calamita. Evolution 58: 2343–2352. &
- 2004. Developmental alterations and osmoregulatory physiology of a larval anuran under osmotic stress. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 77: 267–274. , , &
- 1960. A simplified table for staging anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification. Herpetologica 16: 183–190.
- 2002. The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
- 1979. The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 205: 581–598. &
- 1982. Exaptation: a missing term in the science of form. Paleobiology 8: 4–15. &
- 1991. The Comparative Method in Evolutionary Biology. Oxford University Press, Oxford. &
- 1997. Salt and water balance in the toad Bufo viridis during recovery from two different osmotically stressful conditions. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 117A: 147–154. &
- 1976. Estimation of the box correction for degrees of freedom from sample data in the randomized block and split plot designs. J. Educ. Stat. 1: 69–82. &
- 1998. Evidence from the fossil record of an antipredatory exaptation: conchiolin layers in corbulid bivalves. Evolution 52: 68–79.
- 1990. Changing plasma osmolality – a strategy of adaptation of anuran Amphibia to water scarcity under burrowing conditions. In: Biology and Physiology of Amphibians (W.Hanke, ed.), pp. 351–356. G. Fischer Verlag, Sttutgart. &
- 1999. Adaptation, exaptation, and constraint: a hormonal perspective. Am. Nat. 154: S4-S25. &
- 1996. Phylogenetic systematics of adaptation. In: Adaptation (M. R.Rose & G. V.Lauder, eds), pp. 187–220. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. &
- 1996. The argument from design. In: Adaptation (M. R.Rose & G. V.Lauder, eds), pp. 55–91. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
- 1994. Adaptation and constraint in the complex life cycles of animals. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 25: 573–600.
- 1994. Size at metamorphosis and water loss in a desert anuran (Scaphiopus couchii). Copeia 2: 372–381. &
- 2002. The rattling sound of rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) as a communicative resource of ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) and burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia). J. Comp. Psychol. 116: 197–205. , &
- 1991. Physiological and ecological importance of water to embryos of oviparous reptiles. In: Egg Incubation. Its Effects on Embryonic Development in Birds and Reptiles (D. C.Deeming & M. W. J.Ferguson, eds), pp. 213–228. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- 1987. Influence of moisture, temperature, and substrate on snapping turtle eggs and embryos. Ecology 68: 983–993. , , &
- 1997. Pollinating seed eaters: why is active pollination so rare? Ecology 78: 1655–1660.
- 1998. Genetic constraints at the metamorphic boundary: morphological development in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica. J. Evol. Biol. 11: 453–463.
- 1984. Post-metamorphic change in activity metabolism of anurans in relation to life history. Oecologia 65: 138–144. &
- 1992. Evolution of correlated characters. Trends Ecol. Evol. 7: 307–310. &
- 1993. Adaptation and the goals of evolutionary research. Q. Rev. Biol. 68: 1–32. &
- 2001. The lasting effects of adaptive plasticity: predator-induced tadpoles become long-legged frogs. Ecology 82: 1947–1955.
- 2002. Competitor-induced plasticity in tadpoles: consequences, cues, and connections to predator-induced plasticity. Ecol. Monogr. 72: 523–540.
- 2003. The impact of larval predators and competitors on the morphology and fitness of juvenile treefrogs. Oecologia 134: 596–604. &
- 1997. Reaction norms for metamorphic traits in natterjack toads to larval density and pond duration. J. Evol. Biol. 10: 829–851. &
- 1989. Exaptation and the evolution of dealation in insects. J. Evol. Biol. 2: 109–123.
- SAS Institute 1999. SAS/STAT Software User's Guide. Release 8.00. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
- 1998. Phenotypic Evolution. A Reaction Norm Perspective. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. &
- 1991. The consequences of metamorphosis on salamander (Ambystoma) locomotor performance. Physiol. Zool. 64: 212–231. , &
- 1996. Testing adaptation using phenotypic manipulations. In: Adaptation (M. R.Rose & G. V.Lauder, eds), pp. 149–185. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. &
- 1992. Seasonal changes in the tolerance of osmotic stress in natterjack toads (Bufo calamita). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 101A: 353–360. , &
- 2000. Covariation of morphology and jumping performance in newly metamorphosed water frogs: effects of larval growth history. Copeia 2000: 448–458. , &
- 1975. The adaptive significance of the tadpole stage with comments on the maintenance of complex life cycles in amphibians. Am. Zool. 15: 405–417.
- 2001. A quantitative genetic test of adaptive decoupling across metamorphosis for locomotor and life-history traits in the Pacific tree frog, Hyla regilla. Evolution 55: 1668–1677.
- 1966. Adaptation and Natural Selection. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.