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Keywords:

  • dichogamy;
  • female-phase duration;
  • floral evolution;
  • heritability;
  • male-phase duration;
  • protandry;
  • sex allocation

Abstract

Protandry (when male function precedes female) can enhance fitness by reducing selfing and increasing pollen export and outcrossed siring success. However, responses to selection on protandry may be constrained by genetic variation and correlations among floral traits. We examined these potential constraints in protandrous Chamerion angustifolium (Onagraceae) by estimating genetic variation in male-phase duration and associated floral traits using a paternal half-sib design and selection experiment. Narrow-sense heritability of male-phase duration was estimated as 0.23 (SE ± 0.04) and was positively correlated with floral display. The selection experiment shortened male-phase duration 0.8 SD from the parental average of 17.0 h and lengthened it by 2.0 SD. Furthermore, fixed floral longevity caused a negative association between male- and female-phase durations. These results suggest that selection on male-phase duration is not limited by genetic variation. However, changes in male-phase duration may influence pollinators through correlated changes in floral display and reduced opportunities for pollen receipt during female phase.