Detecting the action of selection in natural populations can be achieved using the QST–FST comparison that relies on the estimation of FST with neutral markers, and QST using quantitative traits potentially under selection. QST higher than FST suggests the action of directional selection and thus potential local adaptation. In this article, we apply the QST–FST comparison to four populations of the hermaphroditic freshwater snail Radix balthica located in a floodplain habitat. In contrast to most studies published so far, we did not detect evidence of directional selection for local optima for any of the traits we measured: QST calculated using three different methods was never higher than FST. A strong inbreeding depression was also detected, indicating that outcrossing is probably predominant over selfing in the studied populations. Our results suggest that in this floodplain habitat, local adaptation of R. balthica populations may be hindered by genetic drift, and possibly altered by uneven gene flow linked to flood frequency.