Adaptation to new environments is a well-documented phenomenon. Individuals from populations maintained in a particular environment for multiple generations tend to be better able to survive and/or reproduce in that environment than their ancestors or other individuals adapted to alternative environments. A third major component of fitness, mating success, has not been well studied in replicated populations under selection in divergent environments. In this study, we used mating trials to compare the mating success of male Drosophila melanogaster adapted for 10 years to two different temperatures, 18 and 25°C. In competition for female partners, males had significantly higher mating success at their adapted temperature compared with males adapted to a different temperature. These results are consistent with the notion that those mutations favoured by natural selection also tend to be favoured by sexual selection.