SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Allison, P.D. 1999. Logistic Regression Using SAS System: Theory and Application. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
  • Boudry, P., McCombie, H. & Van Dijk, H. 2002. Vernalization requirement of wild beet Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima: among population variation and its adaptive significance. J. Ecol. 90: 693703.
  • Byers, D.L. 2005. Evolution in heterogeneous environments and the potential of maintenance of genetic variation in traits of adaptive significance. Genetica 123: 107124.
  • Charnov, E.L. & Schaffer, W.M. 1973. Life-history consequences of natural selection: Cole's result revisited. Am. Nat. 107: 791793.
  • Christiansen, F.B. 1975. Hard and soft selection in a subdivided population. Am. Nat. 109: 1116.
  • Cleland, R.E. 1972. Oenothera: Cytogenetics and Evolution: Experimental Botany. Academic Press, New York.
  • Cockerham, C.C. 1963. Estimation of genetic variances. In: Statistical Genetics and Plant Breeding (W. D.Hanson & H. F.Robertson, eds), pp. 5394. National Academy of Sciences – National Research Council, Washington, DC.
  • Cole, L.C. 1954. The population consequences of life history phenomena. Q. Rev. Biol. 29: 103137.
  • Dempster, E.R. 1955. Maintenance of genetic heterogeneity. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 20: 2532.
  • Dietrich, W. 1977. The South American species of Oenothera Sect. Oenothera (Raimannia, Renneria; Onagraceae). Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 64: 425626.
  • Donohue, K. 2002. Germination timing influences natural selection on life-history characters in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ecology 83: 10061016.
  • Ellstrand, N.C. & Levin, D.A. 1982. Genotypic diversity in Oenothera laciniata (Onagraceae), a permanent translocation heterozygote. Evolution 36: 6369.
  • Evans, M.E.K., Hearn, D.J., Hahn, W.J., Spangle, J.M. & Venable, D.L. 2005. Climate and life-history evolution in evening primroses (Oenothera, Onagraceae): a phylogenetic comparative analysis. Evolution 59: 19141927.
  • Gillespie, J.H. & Turelli, M. 1989. Genotype–environment interactions and the maintenance of polygenic variation. Genetics 121: 129138.
  • Griffith, C., Eunsuk, K. & Donohue, K. 2004. Life-history variation and adaptation in the historically mobile plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) in North America. Am. J. Bot. 91: 837849.
  • Gross, K.L. & Werner, P.A. 1982. Colonizing abilities of biennial plant species in relation to ground cover: implications for their distributions in a successional sere. Ecology 63: 921931.
  • Hall, I.V., Steiner, E., Threadgill, P. & Jones, R.W. 1988. The biology of Canadian weeds (84): Oenothera biennis L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 68: 163173.
  • Hart, R. 1977. Why are biennials so few? Am. Nat. 111: 792799.
  • Hedrick, P.W. 1986. Genetic polymorphism in heterogeneous environments: a decade later. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 17: 535566.
  • Hickman, J.C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
  • Hoff, V.J. 1962. An analysis of outcrossing in certain complex heterozygous Euoenotheras: frequency of outcrossing. Am. J. Bot. 49: 715721.
  • Johnson, M.T.J. & Agrawal, A.A. 2005. Plant genotype and environment interact to shape a diverse arthropod community on Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis). Ecology 86: 874885.
  • Johnson, M.T.J., Lajeunesse, M.J. & Agrawal, A.A. 2006. Additive and interactive effects of plant genotypic diversity on arthropod communities and plant fitness. Ecol. Lett. 9: 2434.
  • De Jong, T.J., Klinkhamer, P.G.L. & Metz, J.A.J. 1987. Selection for biennial life histories in plants. Vegetatio 70: 149156.
  • Kenward, M.G. & Roger, J.H. 1997. Small sample inference for fixed effects from restricted maximum likelihood. Biometrics 53: 983997.
  • Klein, W.M. 1970. The evolution of three diploid species of Oenothera subgenus Anogra (Anogra). Evolution 24: 578597.
  • Lacey, E.P. 1986. The genetic and environmental control of reproductive timing in a short-lived monocarpic species Daucus carota (Umbelliferae). J. Ecol. 74: 7386.
  • Lacey, E.P. 1988. Latitudinal variation in reproductive timing of a short-lived monocarp, Daucus carota (Apiaceae). Ecology 69: 220232.
  • Lande, R. & Arnold, S.J. 1983. The measurement of selection on correlated characters. Evolution 37: 12101226.
  • Law, R., Bradshaw, A.D. & Putwain, P.D. 1977. Life-history variation in Poa annua. Evolution 31: 233246.
  • Levene, H. 1953. Genetic equilibrium when more than one ecological niche is available. Am. Nat. 87: 331333.
  • Levin, D.A. 1975. Minority cyotype exclusion in local plant populations. Taxon 24: 3543.
  • Levin, D.A., Howland, G.P. & Steiner, E. 1972. Protein polymorphism and genic heterozygosty in a population of the permanent translocation heterozygote, Oenothera biennis. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 69: 14751477.
  • Levins, R. 1968. Evolution in Changing Environments. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Littell, R.C., Milliken, G.A., Stroup, W.W. & Wolfinger, R.D. 1996. SAS System for Mixed Models. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
  • Maynard Smith, J. 1998, Evolutionary Genetics. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • McGuire, R.J. & Johnson, M.T.J. 2006. Plant genotype and induced responses affect resistance to herbivores on Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis). Ecol. Entomol. 31: 2031.
  • Metcalf, J.C., Rose, K.E. & Rees, M. 2003. Evolutionary demography of monocarpic perennials. Trends Ecol. Evol. 18: 471480.
  • Mitchell-Olds, T. 1992. Does environmental variation maintain genetic variation? A question of scale. Trends Ecol. Evol. 7: 397398.
  • Rausher, M.D. 1992. The measurement of selection on quantitative traits: biases due to environmental covariances between traits and fitness. Evolution 46: 616626.
  • Reinartz, J.A. 1984. Life history variation of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus): I. Latitudinal differences in population dynamics and timing of reproduction. J. Ecol. 72: 897912.
  • Roff, D.A. 1992. The Evolution of Life Histories: Theory and Analysis. Chapman & Hall, New York.
  • Rose, K.E., Louda, S.M. & Rees, M. 2005. Demographic and evolutionary impacts of native and invasive insect herbivores on Cirsium canescens. Ecology 86: 453465.
  • Silvertown, J.W. 1983. Why are biennials sometimes not so few? Am. Nat. 121: 448453.
  • Simons, A.M. & Johnston, M.O. 2000. Plasticity and the genetics of reproductive behaviour in the monocarpic perennial, Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco). Heredity 85: 356365.
  • Smith, H.B. 1927. Annual versus biennial growth habit and its inheritance in Melilotus alba. Am. J. Bot. 14: 129146.
  • Sokal, R.R. & Rohlf, F.J. 1995. Biometry: The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.
  • Stanton, M.L. & Thiede, D.A. 2005. Statistical convenience vs biological insight: consequences of data transformation for the analysis of fitness variation in heterogeneous environments. New Phytol. 166: 319338.
  • Stearns, S.C. 1976. Life-history tactics: a review of the ideas. Q. Rev. Biol. 51: 347.
  • Stearns, S.C. 1992. The Evolution of Life Histories. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Stinchcombe, J.R., Caicedo, A.L., Hopkins, R., Mays, C., Boyd, E.W., Purugganan, M.D. & Schmitt, J. 2005. Vernalization sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae): the effects of latitude and FLC variation. Am. J. Bot. 92: 17011707.
  • Stratton, D.A. & Bennington, C.C. 1998. Fine-grained spatial and temporal variation in selection does not maintain genetic variation in Erigeron annuus. Evolution 52: 678691.
  • Van Tienderen, P.H. 1997. Generalists, specialists, and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in sympatric populations of distinct species. Evolution 51: 13721380.
  • Wesselingh, R.A. & Klinkhamer, P.G.L. 1996. Threshold size for vernalization in Senecio jacobaea: genetic variation and response to artificial selection. Funct. Ecol. 10: 281288.
  • Willson, M.F. & Traveset, A. 2000. The ecology of seed dispersal. In: Seeds: The Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities, 2nd edn (M.Fenner, ed.), pp. 85110. CABI Publishing, New York.
  • Wolfinger, R. & O'Connell, M. 1993. Generalized linear mixed models: a pseudo-likelihood approach. J. Stat. Comp. Simul. 4: 233243.