Appendix S1. Inbreeding depression values, δ, measured as the difference in fitness between outcrossed and selfed progeny scaled by the value of outcrossed offspring. Significant differences from 0 are indicated in Tables 1 and 2. Outcrossed and selfed offspring was produced under both low and high pollen load treatments. All four types of crosses were performed on the same individual recipient. The fitness traits below are arranged by order of appearance in the life cycle (starting with earlier traits at the top). We considered seed traits and germination ability as variables expressed early in the life-cycle, while other traits were considered as variables expressed later in the life-cycle.

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