Appendix S1. Means, standard deviations and bivariate phenotypic covariances and correlations for six morphological traits in Capricorn silvereyes, Z. l. chlorocephalus, nestlings (N= 104). Lengths are measured in millimetres and the two-tailed significance, at the 0.01 level, of each Pearson correlation is denoted by * *. Covariances and correlations are given below and above the diagonal respectively.

Appendix S2.Genetic variance-covariance (G) matrices for the island race obtained during years, (A) 2000, (B) 2001 and, (C) 2003 calculated using full-sib analysis. Heritabilites are shown in the first column, genetic variances (in bold) on the diagonal, with genetic covariances and correlations below and above the diagonal respectively. Significance is indicated by, * P < 0.05 and * * P < 0.01. Significance of heritabilities is calculated as a 1-tailed Z-test. Standard errors of the heritabilities and genetic correlations are shown in parentheses.

Appendix S3. Statistical significance of fixed effects included in the 'animal model' analysis. Degrees of freedom for F-statistics for the fixed effects year, hatch date and their interaction are, respectively: 2, 264; 1, 264; and 2, 264.

Appendix S4. The principal components (PCs), in descending order of their eigenvalues, of the four G matrices in years (A) 2000, (B) 2001, (C) 2002 and (D) the animal model G matrix. The designation of the largest eigenvector as gmaxfollows Schluter (1996).

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