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Appendix S1. Genetic variation at 8 allozyme loci of 13 populations of Ranunculus reptans. P, percentage of polymorphic loci; A, average number of alleles per locus; M, number of multilocus genotypes relative to the number of sampled plants; Ho and He mean observed and expected heterozygosity; F, mean fixation index; Hs, gene diversity; PS, population size (estimated number of 5 x 5 cm cells with at least one rooted rosette, expressed in m2). SD are given for A, Ho, He, and F; * P < 0.05 for paired t-tests of He and Ho for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and one-sample t-tests for deviation of F from 0.

Appendix S2. Pairwise genetic distances FST (lower left triangle of the matrix) of 13 populations of Ranunculus reptans. Levels of significance are given in the upper right triangle of the matrix. Significance is based on 10 000 permutations (for individual and for gene), 2-sided testing over all loci, and Bonferroni-adjusted α' = 0.05 / 78 = 0.00064 ((*) P < 0.001, * P < 0.00064, ** P < 0.0001).

Appendix S3. The relationship between FST and heterozygosity for simulated neutral markers, under the following assumptions: island metapopulation model with 50 demes; 13 demes sampled, with an average of 12 individuals from each deme; infinite alleles mutation model; 20000 realizations. The simulation was implemented in program FDIST2 (Beaumont & Nichols, 1996). The solid line indicates the median FST and dashed lines depict the upper and lower 95% confidence interval. Filled circles are the observed values of FSTand heterozygosity for the eight allozyme loci. There is no evidence from these results that any of the loci is under homogenizing or divergent selection.

Appendix S4. Total variance attributed to population, paternal genotype nested within population, maternal genotype nested within population, and residual for eight phenotypic traits measured on offspring of within-population crosses of 13 Ranunculus reptans populations raised in a common garden (maximum-likelihood estimation implemented in VARCOMP procedure; SAS Institute Inc. 1999). Significance values are from a general linear model (Bonferroni-adjusted α = 0.0063, ? P < 0.05, ?? P < 0.01, * P < 0.0063, ** P < 0.001, *** P < 0.0001).

Appendix S5. Means of pairwise QST values based on seven phenotypic traits (lower left triangle of the matrix) of 13 populations of Ranunculus reptans and standard errors in the upper right triangle of the matrix.

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