The extent of variation in male song, wing and genital characters among allopatric Drosophila montana populations

Authors


J. Routtu, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, 40014 University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
Tel.: +358 142 604239; fax: +358 142 602321;
e-mail: Jarkko.Routtu@bytl.jyu.fi

Abstract

Drosophila montana, a species of the Drosophila virilis group, has distributed around the northern hemisphere. Phylogeographic analyses of two North American and one Eurasian population of this species offer a good background for the studies on the extent of variation in phenotypic traits between populations as well as for tracing the selection pressures likely to play a role in character divergence. In the present paper, we studied variation in the male courtship song, wing and genital characters among flies from Colorado (USA), Vancouver (Canada) and Oulanka (Finland) populations. The phenotypic divergence among populations did not coincide with the extent of their genetic divergence, suggesting that the characters are not evolving neutrally. Divergence in phenotypic traits was especially high between the Colorado and Vancouver populations, which are closer to each other in terms of their mtDNA genotypes than they are to the Oulanka population. The males of the Colorado population showed high divergence especially in song traits and the males of the Vancouver population in wing characters. Among the male song traits, two characters known to be under sexual selection and a trait important in species recognition differed clearly between populations, implying a history of directional and/or diversifying rather than balancing selection. The population divergence in wing characters is likely to have been enhanced by natural selection associated with environmental factors, whereas the male genitalia traits may have been influenced by sexual selection and/or sexual conflict.

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