APPENDIX A Appendix A1 Analysis of systematic observer bias by one-way ANOVAs of the effect of observer on male traits measured by at least two persons the same year. APPENDIX B Appendix B1 Primer sequences for the five microsatellite loci used. Appendix B2 Microsatellite DNA polymorphism among populations. APPENDIX C Appendix C1Nested ANOVAs of male morphological variation, and mean values in the Eastern and Western regions. Appendix C2 (a) Length of white on tail (mean of right and left outermost tail feathers) and (b) tarsus length of males, in the Western (grey bars) and Eastern (black bars) regions. APPENDIX D Appendix D1 Pairwise QST values (assuming heritability = 0.5 and proportion of additive genetic variation among populations = 1.0) of morphological variation between populations. (a) tail white, (b) tarsus, and (c) PC1 of bill measures. Numbers in parentheses indicate sample size in each population. Significant QST values are highlighted in bold, and comparisons involving populations in different regions are highlighted in italics. Appendix D2 Population differentiation in quantitative traits (QST, assuming g = 1 and h2 = 0.5) in relation to selectively neutral genetic differentiation (microsatellites) measured as RST (Goodman?s Rho). For both tail white (a) and tarsus (b), comparisons among populations in different regions (solid symbols) are larger than expected from RST while this is not the case for comparisons within the regions (open symbols, diamonds in East and squares in West). A different pattern is found for bill length (PC1) where QST values among regions do not differ from within regions and are not larger than expected from neutral variation (c). Note the different scales on the QST-axes. Dashed lines are expectations if QST = RST. Adaptive vs. neutral variation in great snipe ? S?ther et al

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