SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Andrews, R.M., Mathies, T. & Warner, D.A. 2000. Effect of incubation temperature on morphology, growth, and survival of juvenile Sceloporus undulatus. Herpetol. Monogr. 14: 420231.
  • Arnold, S.J. 1983. Morphology, performance and fitness. Am. Zool. 23: 347361.
  • Arnold, S.J. & Peterson, C.R. 2002. A model for optimal reaction norms: the case of the pregnant garter snake and her temperature-sensitive embryos. Am. Nat. 160: 306316.
  • Ashmore, G.M. & Janzen, F.J. 2003. Phenotypic variation in smooth softshell turtles (Apalone mutica) from eggs incubated in constant vs. fluctuating temperatures. Oecologia 134: 182188.
  • Bernardo, J. 1996. Maternal effects in animal ecology. Am. Zool. 36: 83105.
  • Bull, J.J., Vogt, R.C. & Bulmer, M.G. 1982. Heritability of sex ratio in turtles with environmental sex determination. Evolution 36: 333341.
  • Conner, J.K., Franks, R. & Stewart, C. 2003. Expression of additive genetic variances and covariances for wild radish floral traits: comparison between field and greenhouse environments. Evolution 57: 487495.
  • Deeming, D.C. & Ferguson, M.W.J. 1991. Egg Incubation: Its Effects on Embryonic Development in Birds and Reptiles. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • Ernst, C.H., Lovich, J.E. & Barbour, R.W. 1994. Turtles of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
  • Ewert, M.A. 1985. Embryology of turtles. In: Biology of the Reptilia, Vol. 14 (C.Gans, F.Billett & P. F. A.Maderson, eds), pp. 75267. Wiley, New York.
  • Falconer, D.S. & Mackay, T.F. 1996. Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. Longman, Essex.
  • Galbraith, D.A., White, B.N., Brooks, R.J. & Boag, P.T. 1993. Multiple paternity in clutches of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) detected using DNA fingerprints. Can. J. Zool. 71: 318324.
  • Georges, A., Limpus, C. & Stoutjesdijk, R. 1994. Hatchling sex in marine turtle Caretta caretta is determined by proportion of development at a temperature not daily duration of exposure. J. Exp. Zool. 270: 432444.
  • Grant, P.R. & Grant, B.R. 1995. Predicting microevolutionary responses to directional selection on heritable variation. Evolution 49: 241251.
  • Gustafsson, L. & Merila, J. 1994. Foster parent experiment reveals no genotype–environment correlation in the external morphology of Ficedula albicollis, the collared flycatcher. Heredity 73: 124129.
  • Hermida, M., Fernandez, C., Amaro, R. & San Miguel, E. 2002. Heritability and ‘evolvability’ of meristic characters in a natural population of Gasterosteus aculeatus. Can. J. Zool. 80: 532541.
  • Hoffmann, A.A. 2000. Laboratory and field heritabilities: some lessons from Drosophila. In: Adaptive Genetic Variation in the Wild (T. A.Mousseau, B.Sinervo & J.Endler, eds), pp. 200218. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Houle, D. 1992. Comparing evolvability and variability of quantitative traits. Genetics 130: 195204.
  • Iverson, J.B., Higgins, H., Sirulnik, A. & Griffiths, C. 1997. Local and geographic variation in the reproductive biology of the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina). Herpetologica 53: 96117.
  • Janzen, F.J. 1992. Heritable variation for sex ratio under environmental sex determination in the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina). Genetics 131: 155161.
  • Janzen, F.J. 1993. An experimental analysis of natural selection on body size of hatchling turtles. Ecology 74: 332341.
  • Janzen, F.J. 2007. Sex determination. In: Biology of the Snapping Turtle (A. C.Steyermark, M. S.Finkler & R. J.Brooks, eds), in press. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
  • Janzen, F.J., Tucker, J.K. & Paukstis, G.L. 2000. Experimental analysis of an early life-history stage: avian predation selects for larger body size of hatchling turtles. J. Evol. Biol. 13: 947954.
  • Karl, T.R. & Trenberth, K.E. 2003. Modern global climate change. Science 302: 17191723.
  • Kingsolver, J.G. & Huey, R.B. 2003. Introduction: the evolution of morphology, performance, and fitness. Integr. Comp. Biol. 43: 361366.
  • Kolbe, J.J. & Janzen, F.J. 2001. The influence of propagule size and maternal nest-site selection on survival and behaviour of neonate turtles. Funct. Ecol. 15: 772781.
  • Kolbe, J.J. & Janzen, F.J. 2002. Impact of nest-site selection on nest success and nest temperature in natural and disturbed habitats. Ecology 83: 269281.
  • Lynch, M. & Walsh, B. 1998. Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA.
  • Mitchell-Olds, T. & Rutledge, J.J. 1986. Quantitative genetics in natural plant populations: a review of the theory. Am. Nat. 127: 379402.
  • Packard, G.C. 1999. Water relations of chelonian eggs and embryos: is wetter better? Am. Zool. 39: 289303.
  • Packard, G.C. & Packard, M.J. 1993. Sources of variation in laboratory measurements of water relations of reptilian eggs and embryos. Physiol. Zool. 66: 115127.
  • Packard, G.C., Paukstis G.L., Boardman, T.J. & Gutzke, W.H.N. 1985. Daily and seasonal variation in hydric conditions and temperature inside nests of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Can. J. Zool. 63: 24222429.
  • Packard, G.C., Packard, M.J., Miller, K. & Boardman, T.J. 1987. Influence of moisture, temperature, and substrate on snapping turtle eggs and embryos. Ecology 68: 983993.
  • Packard, G.C., Miller, K. & Packard, M.J. 1993. Environmentally induced variation in body size of turtles in natural nests. Oecologia 93: 445448.
  • Packard, G.C., Miller, K., Packard, M.J. & Birchard, G.F. 1999. Environmentally induced variation in body size and condition in hatchling snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Can. J. Zool. 77: 278289.
  • Palmer, A.R. 2000. Quasireplication and the contract of error: lessons from sex ratios, heritabilities and fluctuating asymmetry. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 31: 441480.
  • Plummer, M.V., Shadrix, C.E. & Cox, R.C. 1994. Thermal limits of incubation in embryos of softshell turtles (Apalone mutica). Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 1: 141144.
  • Reznick, D.N., Shaw, F.H., Rodd, F.H. & Shaw, R.G. 1997. Evaluation of the rate of evolution in natural populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Science 275: 19341937.
  • Rimkus, T.A., Hruska, N. & Ackerman, R.A. 2002. Separating the effects of vapor pressure and heat exchange on water exchange by snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs. Copeia 2002: 706715.
  • Riska, B., Prout, T. & Turelli, M. 1989. Laboratory estimates of heritabilities and genetic correlations in nature. Genetics 123: 803813.
  • Roff, D.A. 1997. Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics. Chapman & Hall, New York.
  • SAS Institute, Inc. 2004. JMP Version 5.1.1. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
  • Schlichting, C. & Pigliucci, M. 1998. Phenotypic Evolution: A Reaction Norm Perspective. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA.
  • Shine, R. & Harlow, P.S. 1996. Maternal manipulation of offspring phenotypes via nest-site selection in an oviparous lizard. Ecology 77: 18081817.
  • Shine, R., Madsen, T.R.L., Elphick, M.J. & Harlow, P.S. 1997. The influence of nest temperatures and maternal brooding on hatchling phenotypes in water pythons. Ecology 78: 17131721.
  • Simons, A.M. & Roff, D.A. 1994. The effect of environmental variability on the heritabilities of traits of a field cricket. Evolution 48: 16371649.
  • Sinervo, B. & Doughty, P. 1996. Interactive effects of offspring size and timing of reproduction on offspring reproduction: experimental, maternal, and quantitative genetic aspects. Evolution 50: 13141327.
  • St Juliana, J.R., Bowden, R.M. & Janzen, F.J. 2004. The impact of behavioral and physiological maternal effects on offspring sex ratio in the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 56: 270278.
  • Tucker, J.K. & Janzen, F.J. 1998. Order of oviposition and egg size in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans). Can. J. Zool. 76: 377380.
  • Ultsch, G.R. 1989. Ecology and physiology of hibernation and overwintering among freshwater fishes, turtles, and snakes. Biol. Rev. 64: 435516.
  • Weigensberg, I. & Roff, D.A. 1996. Natural heritabilities: can they be reliably estimated in the laboratory? Evolution 50: 21492157.
  • West-Eberhard, M.J. 2003. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • White, J.B. & Murphy, G.G. 1973. The reproductive cycle and sexual dimorphism of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina serpentina. Herpetologica 29: 240246.
  • Wilhoft, D.C., Hotaling, E. & Franks, P. 1983. Effects of temperature on sex determination in embryos of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina. J. Herpetol. 17: 3842.
  • Yntema, C.L. 1968. A series of stages in the embryonic development of Chelydra serpentina. J. Morphol. 125: 219252.
  • Yntema, C.L. 1978. Incubation times for eggs of the turtle Chelydra serpentina (Testudines: Chelydridae) at various temperatures. Herpetologica 34: 274277.
  • Yntema, C.L. 1979. Temperature levels and periods of sex determination during incubation of eggs of Chelydra serpentina. J. Morphol. 159: 1727.