Present addresses: LGL Ltd, Environmental Research Associates, 9768 Second St, Sidney, BC, Canada V8L 3Y8.
Modelling the genetics and demography of step cline formation: gastropod populations preyed on by experimentally introduced crabs
Article first published online: 25 JUL 2007
Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Volume 20, Issue 5, pages 1976–1987, September 2007
How to Cite
BOULDING, E. G., HAY, T., HOLST, M., KAMEL, S., PAKES, D. and TIE, A. D. (2007), Modelling the genetics and demography of step cline formation: gastropod populations preyed on by experimentally introduced crabs. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 20: 1976–1987. doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2007.01369.x
- Issue published online: 25 JUL 2007
- Article first published online: 25 JUL 2007
- Received 6 November 2006; revised 26 March 2007; accepted 27 March 2007
- 2006. Geographical patterns of adaptation within a species’ range: interactions between drift and gene flow. J. Evol. Biol. 19: 203–215. , &
- 1977. A reassessment of factors, particularly Rattus rattus L., that influenced the decline of endemic forest birds in the Hawaiian Islands. Pac. Sci. 31: 109–133.
- 1999. Clines in polygenic traits. Genet. Res. Camb. 74: 223–236.
- 2001. Adaptation at the edge of a species’ range. In: Integrating Ecology and Evolution in a Spatial Context (J. Silvertown & J. Antonovics, eds), pp. 365–392. Blackwell Science, New York.
- 1998. Claw morphology, prey size selection and foraging efficiency in generalist and specialist shell-breaking crabs. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 220: 191–211. &
- 1998. Predation induced changes in behavior and growth rate in three populations of the intertidal snail, Littorina sitkana (Philippi). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 220: 213–226. , &
- 1990. Are the opposing selective pressures on exposed and protected shores sufficient to maintain genetic differentiation between gastropod populations with high migration rates? Hydrobiologia 193: 41–52.
- 1998. Increasing precision in randomized field experiments: barnacle microtopography as a predictor of Littorina abundance. Hydrobiologia 378: 105–114. &
- 1993. Quantitative genetics of shell form of an intertidal snail: constraints on short-term response to selection. Evolution 47: 576–592. &
- 2001. Genetic and demographic parameters determining population persistence after a discrete change in the environment. Heredity 86: 313–324. &
- 1993. Mechanisms of differential survival and growth of two species of Littorina on wave-exposed and on protected shores. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 169: 139–166. &
- 1999. Changes in selection on gastropod shell size and thickness with wave-exposure on Northeastern Pacific shores. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 232: 217–239. , &
- 2006. Genetic structure and phylogeography of the lined shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, along the northeastern and western Pacific coasts. Mar. Biol. 149: 213–226. &
- 1995. Bootstrap methods in computer simulation experiments. In: Proceedings of the 1995 Winter simulation conference, IEEE (C. Alexopoulos, K. Kang, W. R. Lilegdon & D. Goldsman, eds), pp. 171–177. Piscataway, NJ.
- 1984. The extinction of endemic species by a program of biological control. Pac. Sci. 38: 97–104. , &
- 1995. Introduction, dispersal, and potential impacts of the green crab Carcinus maenas in San Francisco Bay, California. Mar. Biol. 122: 225–237. , &
- 2005. Water-borne cues from a shell-crushing predator induce a more massive shell in experimental populations of an intertidal snail. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 317: 25–35. &
- 1990. Nonadaptive clutch size in tits. Nature 348: 723–725. , , &
- 1999. Biological invaders sweep in. Science 285: 1834–1836.
- 2006. Evolutionary analysis. 4th ed. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. &
- 1997. Genetic models of adaptation and gene flow in peripheral populations. Evolution 51: 21–28. &
- 2002. Evolutionary speed of species invasions. Evolution 56: 661–668. &
- 1995. When does evolution by natural selection prevent extinction? Evolution 49: 201–207. &
- 1995. Spread and potential impact of the recently introduced European green crabs, Carcinus maenas, in central California. Mar. Biol. 122: 239–247. &
- 2001. Population mixing and the adaptive divergence of quantitative traits in discrete populations: a theoretical framework for empirical tests. Evolution 55: 459–466. , &
- 2002. Life history of Littorina scutulata and L. plena sibling gastropod species with planktotrophic larvae. Invert. Biol. 121: 25–37.
- 1966. Evolutionary divergence among adjacent plant populations. I. The evidence and its theoretical analysis. Heredity 21: 407–441. &
- 1983. Selection and migration in two distinctive phenotypes of Littorina saxatilis in Sweden. Oecologia 59: 58–61.
- 1993. Morphological differentiation and genetic cohesiveness over a microenvironmental gradient in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis. Evolution 47: 1770–1787. , &
- 1997. Evolution of a species’ range. Am. Nat. 150: 1–23. &
- 1998. Molecular genetic evidence for parallel evolution in a marine gastropod (Littorina subrotundata). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 265: 303–308. &
- 2000. Comparative population genetic structure of marine gastropods (Littorina spp.) with and without pelagic larval dispersal. Mar. Biol. 137: 835–845. &
- 1993. Evolution and extinction in response to environmental change. In: Biotic Interactions and Global Change (P. M. Kareiva, J. G. Kingsolver & R. B. Huey, eds), pp. 234–250. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA. &
- 1989. A model of population growth, dispersal, and evolution in a changing environment. Ecology 70: 1657–1664. , &
- 2005. The evolutionary forces maintaining a wild polymorphism of Littorina saxatilis: model selection by computer simulations. J. Evol. Biol. 18: 191–202. , , , &
- 1995. GENEPOP Version 1.2: population genetics software for exact tests and eucumenicism. J. Hered. 86: 248–249. &
- 1996. Systematics and Evolution of Littorina. Ray Society No. 164 , London.
- 2001. The population ecology of contemporary adaptations: what empirical studies reveal about the conditions that promote adaptive evolution. Genetica 112–113: 183–198.
- 1997. Evaluation of the rate of evolution in natural populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Science 275: 1934–1937. , , &
- 1984. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions sampling variances and use in estimation of inbreeding coefficients. Genetics 107: 703–718. &
- 1997. The maintenance of a cline in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis: the role of home site advantage and hybrid fitness. Evolution 51: 1838–1847. , &
- 2004. Non-allopatric and parallel origin of local reproductive barriers between two ecotypes of a marine snail. Mol. Ecol. 13: 3415–3424. , , , , , , , &
- 2001. When sources become sinks: migrational meltdown in heterogeneous habitats. Evolution 55: 1520–1531. &
- 1997. Genetic differentiation and estimation of gene flow from F-statistics under isolation by distance. Genetics 145: 1219–1228.
- 1986. Intense natural selection caused a rapid morphological transition in a living marine snail (Littorina obtusata). Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83: 6897–6901.
- 1978. Spatial patterns in the distributions of polygenic characters. J. Theor. Biol. 70: 213–228.
- 2004. A neutral DNA marker suggests that parallel physiological adaptations to open shore and salt marsh habitats have evolved more than once within two different species of gastropods. Mar. Biol. 145: 133–147. &
- 1997. Reproduction and Development of Marine Invertebrates of the Northern Pacific Coast. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA, 670 pp.
- 2000. Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the marine gastropod: Littorina subrotundata. Mol. Ecol. 9: 107–118. , &
- 1996. Phenotypic plasticity in an intertidal snail: the role of a common crab predator. Evolution 50: 448–454.
- 2000. Quantitative genetic models for the balance between migration and stabilizing selection. Genet. Res. 76: 285–293.
- 2001. Effects of releasing maladapted individuals: a demographic-evolutionary model. Am. Nat. 158: 331–340.
- 1977. Biogeography and Adaptation. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
- 1987. Evolution and escalation: an ecological history of life. Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.
- 2001. Differential gene exchange between parapatric morphs of Littorina saxatilis detected using AFLP makers. J. Evol. Biol. 14: 611–619. , &
- 1969. Evolution and the genetics of populations II. The theory of gene frequencies. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
- 1973. Species introduction in a tropical lake. Science 182: 449–455. &