SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abrams, P.A. & Rowe, L. 1996. The effects of predation on the age and size of maturity of prey. Evolution 50: 10521061.
  • Arnqvist, G. & Nilsson, T. 2000. The evolution of polyandry: multiple mating and female fitness in insects. Anim. Behav. 60: 145164.
  • Bergström, J. & Wiklund, C. 2002. Effects of size and nuptial gifts on butterfly reproduction: can females compensate for a smaller size through male-derived nutrients? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 52: 296302.
  • Bergström, J., Wiklund, C. & Kaitala, A. 2002. Natural variation in female mating rate in a polyandrous butterfly: effects of size and age. Anim. Behav. 64: 4954.
  • Bissoondath, C.J. & Wiklund, C. 1996. Effect of male history and body size on ejaculate size and quality in two polyandrous butterflies, Pieris napi and Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Funct. Ecol. 10: 457464.
  • Blankenhorn, W.U. 1998. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in growth, development, and body size in the yellow dung fly. Evolution 52: 13941407.
  • Broström, G. 2006. glmmML: Generalized Linear Models with Clustering. R-package Version 0.65–1. http://cran.ii.uib.no/, accessed on 20 August 2006.
  • Brown, K.M. 1983. Do life history tactics exist at the intraspecific level? Data from freshwater snails. Am. Nat. 121: 871879.
  • Chippindale, A.K., Chu, T.J.F. & Rose, M.R. 1996. Complex trade-offs and the evolution of starvation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution 50: 753766.
  • Conover, D.O. & Present, T.M.C. 1990. Countergradient variation in growth rate: compensation for length of the growing season among Atlantic silversides from different latitudes. Oecologia 83: 316324.
  • Danks, H.V. 1987. Insect dormancy: An Ecological Perspective. Biological Survey of Canada, Ottawa.
  • Dempster, E.R. 1955. Maintenance of genetic heterogeneity. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 20: 2532.
  • Drummond, B.A. 1984. Multiple mating and sperm competition in the Lepidoptera. In: Sperm Competition and the Evolution of Animal Mating Systems (R.L.Smith, ed.), pp. 547572. Academic Press, London.
  • Falconer, D.S. 1989. Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow.
  • Finnish Meteorological Institute. 2007. The onset of the thermal season: mean dates of the normal period 1971–2000 [HTML document]. Updated 13 March 2007 [Cited 13 March 2007]. URL http://www.fmi.fi/saa/tilastot_106.html#1
  • Fisher, R.A. 1930. The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Gillespie, J.H. 1977. Natural selection for variance in offspring numbers: a new evolutionary principle. Am. Nat. 111: 10101014.
  • Gomi, T. 1997. Geographic variation in critical photoperiod for diapause induction and its temperature dependence in Hypantria cunea Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Oecologia 111: 160165.
  • Gomi, T. & Takeda, M. 1996. Changes in life-history traits in the fall webworm within half a century after introduction to Japan. Funct. Ecol. 10: 384389.
  • Gotthard, K. 2000. Increased risk of predation as a cost of high growth rate: an experimental test in a butterfly. J. Anim. Ecol. 69: 896902.
  • Grosberg, R.K. 1988. Life-history variation within a population of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. I. The genetic and environmental control of seasonal variation. Evolution 42: 900920.
  • Honěk, A. 1993. Intraspecific variation in body size and fecundity in insects – a general relationship. Oikos 66: 483492.
  • Huldén, L., Albrecht, A., Itämies, J., Malinen, P. & Wettenhovi, J. 2000. Atlas of Finnish Macrolepidoptera. Lepidopterological Society of Finland/Finnish Museum of Natural History, Helsinki.
  • Kaitala, A. & Wiklund, C. 1994. Polyandrous female butterflies forage for matings. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 35: 385388.
  • Karlsson, B. 1998. Nuptial gifts, resource budgets, and reproductive output in a polyandrous butterfly. Ecology 79: 29312940.
  • Kivelä, S.M. & Välimäki, P. 2008. Competition between larvae in a butterfly, Pieris napi, and maintenance of different life history strategies. J. Anim. Ecol. 77: 529539.
  • Kokko, H. & Mappes, J. 2005. Sexual selection when fertilization is not guaranteed. Evolution 59: 18761885.
  • Leimar, O., Karlsson, B. & Wiklund, C. 1994. Unpredictable food and sexual size dimorphism in insects. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 258: 121125.
  • Marttila, O., Haahtela, T., Aarnio, H. & Ojalainen, P. 1990. Suomen Päiväperhoset. Kirjayhtymä, Helsinki.
  • Masaki, S. 1972. Climatic adaptation and photoperiodic response in the band-legged ground cricket. Evolution 26: 587600.
  • McCulloch, C.E. & Searle, S.R. 2001. Generalized, Linear and Mixed Models. Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.
  • Mousseau, T.A. & Roff, D.A. 1987. Natural selection and the heritability of fitness components. Heredity 59: 181198.
  • Mousseau, T.A. & Roff, D.A. 1989. Adaptation to seasonality in a cricket: patterns of phenotypic and genotypic variation in body size and diapause expression along a cline in season length. Evolution 43: 14831496.
  • Nylin, S., Wickman, P.-O. & Wiklund, C. 1989. Seasonal plasticity in growth and development of the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria (Satyrinae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 38: 155171.
  • R Development Core Team. 2006. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org, accessed on 10 January 2006.
  • Rantala, M.J. & Roff, D.A. 2005. An analysis of trade-offs in immune function, body size and development time in the Mediterranean Field Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Funct. Ecol. 19: 323330.
  • Roff, D. 1980. Optimizing development time in a seasonal environment: the ‘ups and downs’ of clinal variation. Oecologia 45: 202208.
  • Roff, D.A. 1992. The Evolution of Life Histories: Theory and Analysis. Chapman & Hall, New York.
  • Roff, D.A. 1997. Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Rutowski, R.L., Long, C.E., Marshall, L.D. & Vetter, R.S. 1981. Courtship solicitation by Colias females (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Am. Midl. Nat. 105: 334340.
  • Sauer, K.P., Spieth, H.R. & Grüner, C. 1986. Adaptive significance of genetic variability of photoperiodism in Mecoptera and Lepidoptera. In: The Evolution of Insect Life Cycles (F.Taylor & R.Karvan, eds), pp. 153172. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.
  • Sauter, A., Brown, M.J.F., Baer, B. & Schmid-Hempel, P. 2001. Males of social insects can prevent queens from multiple mating. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 268: 14491454.
  • Seger, J. & Brockmann, H.J. 1987. What is bet-hedging? In: Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 4 (P.H.Harvey & L.Partridge, eds), pp. 182211. Oxford University Press, NY.
  • Sibly, R.M. & Calow, P. 1986. Why breeding earlier is always worthwhile. J. Theor. Biol. 123: 311319.
  • Stearns, S.C. 1980. A new view of life-history evolution. Oikos 35: 266281.
  • Stearns, S.C. 1992. The Evolution of Life Histories. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Stjernholm, F. & Karlsson, B. 2000. Nuptial gifts and the use of body resources for reproduction in the green-veined white butterfly Pieris napi. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 267: 807811.
  • Sugawara, T. 1979. Stretch reception in the bursa copulatrix of the buttefly, Pieris rapae crucivora, and its role in behaviour. J. Comp. Physiol. B. 130: 191199.
  • Svärd, L. & Wiklund, C. 1989. Mass and production rate of ejaculates in relation to monandry/polyandry in butterflies. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 24: 395402.
  • Tauber, M.J., Tauber, C.A. & Masaki, S. 1986. Seasonal Adaptations of Insects. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Välimäki, P. & Kaitala, A. 2006. Does a lack of mating opportunities explain monandry in the green-veined white butterfly (Pieris napi)? Oikos 115: 110116.
  • Välimäki, P. & Kaitala, A. 2007. Life history trade-offs in relation to the degree of polyandry and developmental pathway in Pieris napi (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Oikos 116: 15691580.
  • Välimäki, P., Kaitala, A. & Kokko, H. 2006. Temporal patterns in reproduction may explain variation in mating frequencies in the green-veined white butterfly Pieris napi. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 61: 99107.
  • Venables, W.N. & Ripley, B.D. 2002. Modern Applied Statistics with S, 4th edn. Springer, New York.
  • Vepsäläinen, K. 1974. The life cycles and wing lengths of Finnish Gerris Fabr. species (Heteroptera, Gerridae). Acta Zool. Fenn. 141: 173.
  • Wedell, N. 2001. Female remating in butterflies: interaction between female genotype and nonfertile sperm. J. Evol. Biol. 14: 746754.
  • Wedell, N., Wiklund, C. & Cook, P.A. 2002. Monandry and polyandry as alternative lifestyles in a butterfly. Behav. Ecol. 13: 450455.
  • Wiklund, C. & Kaitala, A. 1995. Sexual selection for large male size in a polyandrous butterfly: the effect of body size on male versus female reproductive success in Pieris napi. Behav. Ecol. 6: 613.
  • Wiklund, C., Nylin, S. & Forsberg, J. 1991. Sex-related variation in growth rate as a result of selection for large size and protandry in a bivoltine butterfly (Pieris napi L.). Oikos 60: 241250.
  • Wiklund, C., Wickman, P.-O. & Nylin, S. 1992. A sex difference in the propensity to enter direct/diapause development: a result of selection for protandry. Evolution 46: 519528.
  • Wiklund, C., Kaitala, A., Lindfors, V. & Abenius, J. 1993. Polyandry and its effect on female reproduction in the green-veined white butterfly (Pieris napi L.). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 33: 2533.
  • Wiklund, C., Kaitala, A. & Wedell, N. 1998. Decoupling of reproductive rates and parental expenditure in a polyandrous butterfly. Behav. Ecol. 9: 2025.