Appendix S1 Annual directional (β) and quadratic selection coefficients (γ) on red-bill Gull breeding time using (1) Feldging success, (2) recruitment success and (3) survival of breeding birds as proxy of fitness in (A) females and (B) males. N = number of individuals, Parameters in bold are significant.

Appendix S2 Random regressions to assess age effects on the amount of additive genetic variance in females.

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