Spatial seed and pollen games: dispersal, sex allocation, and the evolution of dioecy
Article first published online: 2 AUG 2010
© 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology
Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Volume 23, Issue 9, pages 1947–1956, September 2010
How to Cite
FROMHAGE, L. and KOKKO, H. (2010), Spatial seed and pollen games: dispersal, sex allocation, and the evolution of dioecy. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 23: 1947–1956. doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2010.02057.x
- Issue published online: 20 AUG 2010
- Article first published online: 2 AUG 2010
- Received 26 January 2010; revised 27 May 2010; accepted 14 June 2010
- 1999. Determinants of sex allocation in a gynodioecious wild strawberry: implications for the evolution of dioecy and sexual dimorphism. J. Evol. Biol. 12: 648–661.
- 2007. Male mating opportunities affect sex allocation in a protrandric-simultaneous hermaphroditic shrimp. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 61: 365–370.
- 2004. How do sessile dioecious species cope with their males? Theor. Popul. Biol. 66: 163–173. &
- 1980. Evolution of dioecy in flowering plants. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11: 15–39.
- 1982. Outcrossing and the incidence of dioecism in island floras. Am. Nat. 119: 866–871.
- 2006. Evolution of plant breeding systems. Curr. Biol. 16: R726–R735.
- 1978. Model for evolution of dioecy and gynodioecy. Am. Nat. 112: 975–997. &
- 1990. Inbreeding depression with heterozygote advantage and its effect on selection for modifiers changing the outcrossing rate. Evolution 44: 870–888. &
- 1982. The Theory of Sex Allocation. Princeon University Presss, Princeton, NJ.
- 1976. Why be an hermaphrodite. Nature 263: 125–126. , &
- 1877. The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species. John Murray, London.
- 2005. Evolutionary Ecology of Plant Reproductive Strategies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. &
- 1990. Sex-differential resource-allocation patterns in the subdioecious shrub Hebe subalpina. Ecology 71: 1342–1351.
- 2008. Density-dependent regulation of the sex ratio in an annual plant. Am. Nat. 171: 824–830. &
- 2009. Hermaphroditic sex allocation evolves when mating opportunities change. Curr. Biol. 19: 514–517. &
- 1999. Kin competition, the cost of inbreeding and the evolution of dispersal. J. Theor. Biol. 200: 345–364.
- 1999. Gender and sexual dimorphism in flowering plants. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. , &
- 1980. Ecological constraints on the evolution of breeding systems in seed plants – dioecy and dispersal in gymnosperms. Evolution 34: 959–972.
- 1967. Extraordinary sex ratios. Science 156: 477.
- 1977. Dispersal in stable habitats. Nature 269: 578–581. &
- 2001. The consequences of dioecy for seed dispersal: modeling the seed-shadow handicap. Evolution 55: 880–888. , &
- 2005. John Maynard Smith and the importance of consistency in evolutionary game theory. Biol. Philos. 20: 933–950. &
- 1980. Monkey dispersal and waste of a neotropical fruit. Ecology 61: 944–959.
- 1981. Dispersal of a neotropical nutmeg (Virola sebifera) by birds. Auk 98: 88–98.
- 1997. On estimation of the ratio of pollen to seed flow among plant populations. Heredity 79: 541–552. &
- 1979. Tree dispersion, abundance, and diversity in a tropical dry forest. Science 203: 1299–1309.
- 2008. Dioecy as a specialization promoting sperm delivery. Evol. Ecol. Res. 10: 867–892. &
- 2006. Animals mix it up too: The distribution of self-fertilization among hermaphroditic animals. Evolution 60: 1816–1824. &
- 1997. Sex and size in cosexual plants. Trends Ecol. Evol. 12: 260–265. , &
- 1994. High inbreeding depression, selective interference among loci, and the threshold selfing rate for purging recessive lethal mutations. Evolution 48: 965–978. , &
- 1998. Direct and indirect estimates of seed versus pollen movement within a population of ponderosa pine. Evolution 52: 61–67. , , &
- 1974. Gene flow in seed plants. Evol. Biol. 7: 139–220. &
- 1979. Some reproductive factors affecting the selection of self-fertilization in plants. Am. Nat. 113: 67–79.
- 1982. Selection of combined versus separate sexes in seed plants. Am. Nat. 120: 571–585.
- 1984. Modification of the gender of seed plants in varying conditions. Evol. Biol. 17: 255–338. &
- 1978. The Evolution of Sex. Alden Press, Oxford.
- 1982. Evolution and the Theory of Games. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- 1999. Responses of floral traits to selection on primary sexual investment in Spergularia marina: the battle between the sexes. Evolution 53: 717–731. , &
- 2009. The genetic consequences of fluctuating inbreeding depression and the evolution of plant selfing rates. J. Evol. Biol. 22: 708–717. , , , , &
- 1995. Dioecy and its correlates in the flowering plants. Am. J. Bot. 82: 596–606. &
- 2000. Kin selection and natal dispersal in an age-structured population. Theor. Popul. Biol. 58: 143–159. , &
- 2003. Responses of dispersal agents to tree and fruit traits in Virola calophylla (Myristicaceae): implications for selection. Oecologia 136: 80–87.
- 2009. Tests of sex allocation theory in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. Evolution 63: 1377–1405.
- 1990. Hypotheses for the evolution of dioecy in seed plants. Trends Ecol. Evol. 5: 11–16. &
- 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of the ecological correlates of dioecy in angiosperms. J. Evol. Biol. 16: 1006–1018. , &
- 2007. Animal dispersal dynamics promoting dioecy over Hermaphroditism. Am. Nat. 170: 485–491. , &
- 2003. Reproductive uncertainty and the relative competitiveness of simultaneous hermaphroditism versus dioecy. Am. Nat. 162: 220–241. &
- 2004. Pollen limitation and the evolution of androdioecy from dioecy. Am. Nat. 163: 122–137. &