SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Bentsen, C.L., Hunt, J., Jennions, M.D. & Brooks, R. 2006. Complex multivariate sexual selection on male acoustic signaling in a wild population of Teleogryllus commodus. Am. Nat. 167: E102E116.
  • Bisgaard, S. & Ankenman, B. 1996. Standard errors for the eigenvalues in second-order response surface models. Technometrics 38: 238246.
  • Blows, M.W. & Brooks, R. 2003. Measuring non-linear selection. Am. Nat. 162: 815820.
  • Bogin, B. & Varela-Silva, M.I. 2010. Leg length, body proportion, and health: a review with a note on beauty. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7: 10471075.
  • Braun, M.F. & Bryan, A. 2006. Female waist-to-hip and male waist-to-shoulder ratios as determinants of romantic partner desirability. J. Soc. Pers. Relat. 23: 805819.
  • Brown, W.M., Price, M.E., Kang, J.S., Pound, N., Zhao, Y. & Yu, H. 2008. Fluctuating asymmetry and preferences for sex-typical bodily characteristics. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105: 1293812943.
  • Buunk, B.P. & Dijkstra, P. 2005. A narrow waist versus broad shoulders: sex and age differences in the jealousy-evoking characteristics of a rival’s body build. Pers. Individ. Dif. 39: 379389.
  • Cant, J.G.H. 1981. Hypothesis for the evolution of human breasts and buttocks. Am. Nat. 117: 199204.
  • Cashdan, E. 2008. Waist-to-hip ratio across cultures: trade-offs between Androgen- and Estrogen-dependent traits. Curr. Anthropol. 49: 10981106.
  • Chenoweth, S.F. & Blows, M.W. 2005. Contrasting mutual sexual selection on homologous signal traits in Drosophila serrata. Evolution 165: 281289.
  • Cornelissen, P.L., Hancock, P.J.B., Kiviniemi, V., George, H.R. & Toveé, M.J. 2009a. Patterns of eye movements when male and female observers judge female attractiveness, body fat and waist-to-hip ratio. Evol. Hum. Behav. 30: 417428.
  • Cornelissen, P.L., Toveé, M.J. & Bateson, M. 2009b. Patterns of subcutaneous fat deposition and the relationship between body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: implications for models of physical attractiveness. J. Theor. Biol. 256: 343350.
  • Dixson, B.J., Dixson, A.F., Li, B.G. & Anderson, M.J. 2007. Studies of human physique and sexual attractiveness: sexual preferences of men and women in China. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 19: 8895.
  • Dixson, B.J., Grimshaw, G.M., Linklater, W.L. & Dixson, A.F. 2009. Eye-tracking of men’s preferences for waist-to-hip ratio and breast size of women. Arch. Sex. Behav., doi: 10.1007/s10508-009-9523-5.
  • Dixson, B.J., Sagata, K., Linklater, W.L. & Dixson, A.F. 2010. Male preferences for female waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 141: 620625.
  • Donohoe, M.L., Von Hippel, W. & Brooks, R. 2009. Beyond waist–hip ratio: experimental multivariate evidence that average women’s torsos are most attractive. Behav. Ecol. 20: 716721.
  • Draper, N. & Smith, H. 1981. Applied Regression Analysis, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • Fan, J., Liu, F., Wu, J. & Dai, W. 2004. Visual perception of female physical attractiveness. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 271: 347352.
  • Fan, J., Dai, W., Liu, F. & Wu, J. 2005. Visual perception of male body attractiveness. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 272: 219226.
  • Fan, J., Dai, W., Qian, X., Chau, K.P. & Liu, Q. 2007. Effects of shape parameters on the attractiveness of a female body. Percept. Mot. Skills 105: 117132.
  • Frederick, D.A., Hadji-Michael, M., Furnham, A. & Swami, V. 2010. The influence of leg-to-body ratio (LBR) on judgments of female physical attractiveness: assessments of computer-generated images varying in LBR. Body Image 7: 5155.
  • Furnham, A., Petrides, K. & Constantinedes, A. 2005. The effect of body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio and breast size correlates of ratings of attractiveness and health. Pers. Individ. Dif. 38: 18231834.
  • Furnham, A., Swami, V. & Shah, K. 2006. Body weight, waist-to-hip ratio and breast size correlates of ratings of attractiveness and health. Pers. Individ. Dif. 41: 443454.
  • Gangestad, S.W. & Scheyd, G.J. 2005. The evolution of human physical attractiveness. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 34: 523548.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. & Brooks, R.C. 2009. Experimental analysis of multivariate female choice in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor): evidence for directional and stabilizing selection. Evolution 63: 25042512.
  • Grundl, M., Eisenmann-Klein, M. & Prantl, L. 2009. Quantifying female bodily attractiveness by a statistical analysis of body measurements. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 123: 10641071.
  • Hamermesh, D.S. & Biddle, J.E. 1994. Beauty and the labour market. Am. Econ. Rev. 84: 11741194.
  • Henss, R. 1995. Waist-to-hip ratio and attractiveness: replication and extension. Pers. Individ. Dif. 19: 479488.
  • Jasienska, G., Ziomkiewicz, A., Ellison, P.T., Lipson, S.F. & Thune, I. 2004. Large breasts and narrow waists indicate high reproductive potential in women. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 271: 12131217.
  • Jasienski, M. & Bazzaz, F.A. 1999. The fallacy of ratios and the testability of models in biology. Oikos 84: 321326.
  • Johnson, K.L. & Tassinary, L.G. 2007. Compatibility of basic social perceptions determines perceived attractiveness. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 104: 52465251.
  • Lande, R. & Arnold, S.J. 1983. The measurement of selection on correlated characters. Evolution 37: 12101226.
  • Lassek, W.D. & Gaulin, S.J.C. 2006. Changes in body fat distribution in relation to parity in American women: a covert form of maternal depletion. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 131: 295302.
  • LeBas, N.R., Hockham, L.R. & Ritchie, M.G. 2003. Nonlinear and correlational sexual selection on ‘honest’ female ornamentation. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 270: 21592165.
  • Liu, F., Fan, J.T. & Lau, L.L. 2006. Perceived body size affected by garment and body mass index. Percept. Mot. Skills 103: 253264.
  • Lynn, M. 2009. Determinants and consequences of female attractiveness and sexiness: realistic tests with restaurant waitresses. Arch. Sex. Behav. 38: 737745.
  • Marlowe, F., Apicella, C. & Reed, D. 2005. Men’s preferences for women’s profile waist-to-hip ratio in two societies. Evol. Hum. Behav. 26: 458468.
  • Mascia-Lees, F.E., Relethford, J.H. & Sorger, T. 1986. Evolutionary perspectives on permanent breast enlargement in human females. Am. Anthropol. 88: 423428.
  • Miller, G. 2009. Spent: Sex, Evolution and Consumer Behaviour. Viking, New York.
  • Mobius, M.M. & Rosenblat, T.S. 2006. Why beauty matters. Am. Econ. Rev. 96: 222235.
  • Pawlowski, B. 1999. Permanent breasts as a side effect of subcutaneous fat tissue increase in human evolution. HOMO 50: 149162.
  • Phillips, P.C. & Arnold, S.J. 1989. Visualizing multivariate selection. Evolution 43: 12091222.
  • Rilling, J.K., Kaufman, T.L., Smith, E.O., Patel, R. & Worthman, C.M. 2009. Abdominal depth and waist circumference as influential determinants of human female attractiveness. Evol. Hum. Behav. 30: 2131.
  • Rimm, A., Hartz, A. & Fischer, M. 1988. A weight shape index for assessing risk of disease in 44,820 women. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 41: 459465.
  • Rozmus-Wrzesinska, M. & Pawlowski, B. 2005. Men’s ratings of female attractiveness are influenced more by changes in female waist size compared with changes in hip size. Biol. Psychol. 68: 299308.
  • Rundle, H.D., Chenoweth, S.F. & Blows, M.W. 2008. Comparing complex fitness surfaces: among-population variation in mutual sexual selection in Drosophila serrata. Am. Nat. 171: 443454.
  • Saad, G. 2004. Applying evolutionary psychology in understanding the representation of women in advertisements. Psychol. Mark. 21: 593612.
  • Singh, D. 1993a. Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness: role of waist-to-hip ratio. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 65: 293307.
  • Singh, D. 1993b. Body shape and women’s attractiveness – the critical role of waist-to-hip ratio. Hum. Nat. 4: 297321.
  • Singh, D. & Luis, S. 1994. Ethnic and gender consensus for the effect of waist-to-hip ratio on judgements of women’s attractiveness. Hum. Nat. 6: 5165.
  • Singh, D. & Young, R.K. 1995. Body weight, waist-to-hip ratio, breasts, and hips: role in judgments of female attractiveness and desirability for relationships. Ethol. Sociobiol. 16: 483507.
  • Smith, K.L., Toveé, M.J., Hancock, P.J.B., Bateson, M., Cox, M.A.A. & Cornelissen, P.L. 2007. An analysis of body shape attractiveness based on image statistics: evidence for a dissociation between expressions of preference and shape discrimination. Vis. Cogn. 15: 927953.
  • Stinchcombe, J.R., Agrawal, A.F., Hohenlohe, P.A., Arnold, S.J. & Blows, M.W. 2008. Estimating non-linear selection gradients using quadratic regression coefficients: double or nothing? Evolution 62: 24352440.
  • Streeter, S.A. & McBurney, D.H. 2003. Waist-hip ratio and attractiveness: new evidence and a critique of “a critical test”. Evol. Hum. Behav. 24: 8898.
  • Swami, V., Chan, F., Wong, V., Furnham, A. & Toveé, M.J. 2008. Weight-based discrimination in occupational hiring and helping behavior. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 38: 968981.
  • Swami, V., Frederick, D.A., Aavik, T., Alcalay, L., Allik, J., Anderson, D., Andrianto, S., Arora, A., Brannstrom, A., Cunningham, J., Danel, D., Doroszewicz, K., Forbes, G.B., Furnham, A., Greven, C.U., Halberstadt, J., Hao, S., Haubner, T., Hwang, C.S., Inman, M., Jaafar, J.L., Johansson, J., Jung, J., Keser, A., Kretzschmar, U., Lachenicht, L., Li, N.P., Locke, K., Lonnqvist, J.E., Lopez, C., Loutzenhiser, L., Maisel, N.C., McCabe, M.P., McCreary, D.R., McKibbin, W.F., Mussap, A., Neto, F., Nowell, C., Alampay, L.P., Pillai, S.K., Pokrajac-Bulian, A., Proyer, R.T., Quintelier, K., Ricciardelli, L.A., Rozmus-Wrzesinska, M., Ruch, W., Russo, T., Schutz, A., Shackelford, T.K., Shashidharan, S., Simonetti, F., Sinniah, D., Swami, M., Vandermassen, G., Van Duynslaeger, M., Verkasalo, M., Voracek, M., Yee, C.K., Zhang, E.X., Zhang, X.Y. & Zivcic-Becirevic, I. 2010. The attractive female body weight and female body dissatisfaction in 26 countries across 10 world regions: results of the International Body Project I. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 36: 309325.
  • Tassinary, L.G. & Hansen, K.A. 1998. A critical test of the waist-to-hip-ratio hypothesis of female physical attractiveness. Psychol. Sci. 9: 150155.
    Direct Link:
  • Tovee, M.J., Reinhardt, S., Emery, J.L. & Cornelissen, P.L. 1998. Optimum body-mass index and maximum sexual attractiveness. Lancet 352: 548.
  • Toveé, M.J., Maisey, D.S., Emery, J.L. & Cornelissen, P.L. 1999. Visual cues to female physical attractiveness. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 266: 211218.
  • Toveé, M.J., Hancock, P.J.B., Mahmoodi, S., Singleton, B.R.R. & Cornelissen, P.L. 2002. Human female attractiveness: waveform analysis of body shape. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 269: 22052213.
  • Voracek, M. 2009. Multiple correlated cues to female physical attractiveness create multicollinearity problems. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 124: 13711372.
  • Weeden, J. & Sabini, J. 2005. Physical attractiveness and health in western societies: a review. Psychol. Bull. 131: 635653.
  • Wells, J.C.K., Treleaven, P. & Cole, T.J. 2007. BMI compared with 3-dimensional body shape: the UK National Sizing Survey. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 85: 419425.
  • Wells, J.C.K., Cole, T.J. & Treleaven, P. 2008a. Age-variability in body shape associated with excess weight: The UK National Sizing Survey. Obesity 16: 435441.
  • Wells, J.C.K., Ruto, A. & Treleaven, P. 2008b. Whole-body three-dimensional photonic scanning: a new technique for obesity research and clinical practice. Int. J. Obes. 32: 232238.
  • Zaadstra, B., Seidell, J., Van Noord, P., Te Velde, E., Hambemma, J., Vrieswijk, B. & Karbaat, J. 1993. Prospective study of the effect of body fat distribution on conception rates. Br. Med. J. 306: 484487.