SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ackerly, D.D. 2000. Taxon sampling, correlated evolution, and independent contrasts. Evolution 54: 14801492.
  • Ackerly, D.D. & Donoghue, M.J. 1998. Leaf size, sapling allometry, and Corner’s rules: phylogeny and correlated evolution in maples (Acer). Am. Nat. 152: 767791.
  • Antonovics, J. 1976. The nature of limits to natural selection. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 63: 224247.
  • Armbruster, W.S. 1991. Multilevels analysis of morphometric data from natural plant populations: insights into ontogenetic, genetic, and selective correlations in Dalechampia scandens. Evolution 45: 12291244.
  • Armbruster, W.S. & Schwagerle, K. 1996. Causes of covariation of phenotypic traits among populations. J. Evol. Biol. 9: 261276.
  • Armbruster, W.S., Distilio, V., Tuxill, J., Flores, T. & Runk, J. 1999. Covariance and decoupling of floral and vegetative traits in nine neotropical plants: a re-evaluation of Berg’s correlation-pleiades concept. Am. J. Bot. 86: 3955.
  • Baker, R.H. & Wilkinson, G.S. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of correlation structure in stalk-eyed flies (Diasemopsis, Diopsidae). Evolution 57: 87103.
  • Berg, R. 1960. The ecological significance of correlation pleiades. Evolution 14: 171180.
  • van Buren, J. 1970. Fruit phenolics. In: The Biochemistry of Fruits and Their Products (A.C.Hulme, ed.), pp. 269304. Academic Press, London and New York.
  • Camara, B. & Brangeon, J. 1981. Carotenoid metabolism during chloroplast to chromoplast transformation in Capsicum annuum fruit. Planta 151: 359364.
  • Chen, J., Flemming, T.H., Zhang, L., Wang, H. & Liu, Y. 2004. Patterns of fruit traits in a tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Acta Oecol. 26: 157164.
  • Cheverud, J.M., Wagner, G. & Dow, M. 1989. Methods for the comparative analysis of variation patterns. Syst. Zool. 38: 201213.
  • Debussche, M. & Isenmann, P. 1989. Fleshy fruits characters and the choices of bird and mammal seed dispersers in a Mediterranean region. Oikos 56: 327338.
  • Diniz-Filho, J., de Sant’Anna, C. & Bini, L. 1998. An eigenvector method for estimating phylogenetic inertia. Evolution 52: 12471262.
  • Dow, M.M. & Cheverud, J.M. 1985. Comparison of genetic distance matrices in studies of population structure and genetic microdifferentiation: quadratic assignment. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 68: 367374.
  • Efron, B. & Tibshirani, R. 1993. An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Chapman and Hall, New York.
  • Endler, J.A. 1990. On the measurement and classification of colour in studies of animal colour patterns. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 41: 315352.
  • Fisher, K.E. & Chapman, C.A. 1993. Frugivores and fruit syndromes: differences in patterns at the genus and species level. Oikos 66: 472482.
  • Garland, T., Harvey, P. & Ives, A. 1992. Procedures for the analysis of comparative data using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Syst. Biol. 41: 1832.
  • Gautier-Hion, A., Duplantier, J.M., Quris, R., Feer, F., Sourd, C., Decoux, J.P. et al. 1985. Fruits characters as a basis of fruit choice and seed dispersal in a tropical forest vertebrate community. Oecologia 65: 324337.
  • Gould, S.J. & Lewontin, R.C. 1979. The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 205: 581598.
  • Herrera, C.M. 1987. Vertebrate-dispersed plants of the Iberian peninsula: a study of fruit characteristics. Ecol. Monogr. 57: 305331.
  • Herrera, C.M., Cerdá, X., García, M.B., Guitián, J., Medrano, M., Rey, P.J. et al. 2002. Floral integration, phenotypic covariance structure and pollinator variation in bumblebee-pollinated Helleborus foetidus. J. Evol. Biol. 15: 108121.
  • Hu, Z.M., Larson, S.R., Jones, T.A. & Wang, R.R.C. 2002. Genetic relationships among soluble carbohydrates, anthocyanins and growth characteristics in Leymus (Gramineae) detected with molecular markers. Acta Bot. Sin. 44: 11731181.
  • Izhaki, I. 2002. The role of fruit traits indetermining fruit removal in East Mediterranean ecosystems. In: Dispersal and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation (D.J.Levey, W.R.Silva & M.Galetti, eds), pp. 161175. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
  • Janson, C.H. 1983. Adaptation of fruit morphology to dispersal agents in a Neotropical forest. Science 219: 187189.
  • Jordano, P. 1987. Frugivory, external morphology and digestive system in mediterranean sylviid warblers Sylvia spp. Ibis 129: 175189.
  • Jordano, P. 1988. Diet fruit choice and variation in body condition of frugivorous warblers in Mediterranean scrubland. Ardea 76: 193209.
  • Jordano, P. 1995a. Angiosperms fleshy fruits and seed dispersers: a comparative analysis of adaptation and constraints in plant–animal interactions. Am. Nat. 145: 163191.
  • Jordano, P. 1995b. Frugivore-mediated selection on fruit and seed size: birds and St. Lucie’s cherry, Prunus mahaleb. Ecology 76: 26272639.
  • Jordano, P. 2000. Fruits and frugivory. In: Seeds: The Ecology of Regeneration in Natural Plant Communities, 2nd edn (M.Fenner, ed.), pp. 125166. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau International, Wallingford, UK.
  • Knight, R.S. & Siegfried, W.R. 1983. Interrelationships between type, size, color of fruits and dispersal in Southern African trees. Oecologia 56: 405412.
  • Lande, R. & Arnold, S.J. 1983. The measurement of selection on correlated characters. Evolution 37: 12101226.
  • Levey, D.J. 1987. Seed size and fruit-handling techniques of avian frugivores. Am. Nat. 129: 471485.
  • Lomáscolo, S.B. & Schaefer, H.M. 2010. Signal convergence in fruits: a result of selection by frugivores? J. Evol. Biol. 23: 614624.
  • Lomáscolo, S.B., Speranza, P. & Kimball, R.T. 2008. Correlated evolution of fig size and color supports the dispersal syndromes hypothesis. Oecologia 156: 783796.
  • Lomáscolo, S.B., Levey, D.J., Kimball, R.T., Bolker, B.M. & Alborn, H.T. 2010. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae). Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107: 1466814672.
  • Marroig, G. & Cheverud, J.M. 2001. A comparison of phenotypic variation and covariation patterns and the role of phylogeny, ecology, and ontogeny during cranial evolution of New World monkeys. Evolution 55: 25762600.
  • Montgomerie, R. 2006. Analyzing colors. In: Bird Coloration. Mechanisms and Measurements, Vol. 1 (G.E.Hill & K.J.McGraw, eds), pp. 90147. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Murren, C.J. 2002. Phenotypic integration in plants. Plant Species Biol. 17: 8999.
    Direct Link:
  • Murren, C.J., Pendleton, N. & Pigliucci, M. 2002. Evolution of phenotypic integration in Brassica (Brassicaceae). Am. J. Bot. 89: 655663.
  • Ollier, S., Couteron, P. & Chessel, D. 2006. Orthonormal transform to decompose the variance of a life-history trait across a phylogenetic tree. Biometrics 62: 471477.
  • Olson, E.C. & Miller, R.L. 1958. Morphological Integration. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Paradis, E. 2006. Analysis of Phylogenetics and Evolution with R. Springer, New York.
  • Pérez, F., Arroyo, M.T.K. & Medel, R. 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of floral integration in Schizanthus (Solanaceae): does pollination truly integrate corolla traits? J. Evol. Biol. 20: 17301738.
  • Pérez-Barrales, R., Arroyo, J. & Armbruster, W.S. 2007. Differences in pollinator faunas may generate geographic differences in flora morphology and integration in Narcissus papyraceus (Amaryllidaceae). Oikos 116: 19041918.
  • Pigliucci, M. & Preston, K. 2004. Phenotypic Integration. Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Pigliucci, M., Cammell, K. & Schmitt, J. 1999. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity a comparative approach in the phylogenetic neighbourhood of Arabidopsis thaliana. J. Evol. Biol. 12: 779791.
  • van der Pijl, L. 1972. Principles of Dispersal in Higher Plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  • Primack, R.B. 1987. Relationships among flowers, fruits, and seeds. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 18: 409430.
  • R Development Core Team 2005. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. Available at: http://www.R-project.org.
  • Purvis, A., Gittleman, J.L. & Luh, H.K. 1994. Truth or consequences: effects of phylogenetic accuracy on two comparative methods. J. Theor. Biol. 167: 293300.
  • Rosati, A., Zipancic, M., Caporali, S. & Padula, G. 2009. Fruit weight is related to ovary weight in olive (Olea europaea L.). Sci. Hortic. 122: 399403.
  • Sallabanks, R. 1993. Hierarchical mechanism of fruit selection by an avian frugivore. Ecology 74: 13261336.
  • Schaefer, H.M. & Schmidt, V. 2004. Detectability and content as opposing signal characteristics in fruits. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 271: S370S373.
  • Schaefer, H.M., Schmidt, V. & Bairlein, F. 2003a. Discrimination abilities for nutrients: which difference matters for choosy birds and why? Anim. Behav. 65: 531541.
  • Schaefer, H.M., Schmidt, V. & Winkler, H. 2003b. Testing the defense trade-off hypothesis: how contents of nutrients and secondary compounds affect fruit removal. Oikos 102: 318328.
  • Schaefer, H.M., McGraw, K. & Catoni, C. 2008. Birds use fruit colour as honest signal of dietary antioxidant rewards. Funct. Ecol. 22: 303310.
  • Schwenk, K. & Wagner, G.P. 2004. The relativism of constraints on phenotypic evolution. In: Phenotypic Integration. Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes (M.Pigliucci & K.Preston, eds), pp. 390408. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Solfanelli, C., Poggi, A., Loreti, E., Alpi, A. & Perata, P. 2006. Sucrose-specific induction of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 140: 637646.
  • Stevens, P.F. (2001). Angiosperm phylogeny website. Version 7, May 2006. Available at: http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/.
  • Wagner, G.P. 1984. On the eigenvalue distribution of genetic and phenotypic dispersion matrices: evidence for a nonrandom organization of quantitative character variation. J. Math. Biol. 21: 7795.
  • Webb, C.O. & Donoghue, M.J. 2002. Phylomatic: a database for applied phylogenetics. Available at: http://www.phylodiversity.net/phylomatic.
  • West-Eberhard, M.J. 2003. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Wheelwright, N.T. 1985. Fruit size, gape width, and the diets of fruit-eating birds. Ecology 66: 808818.
  • Young, R.L. & Badyaev, A.V. 2006. Evolutionary persistence of phenotypic integration: influence of developmental and functional relationships on complex trait evolution. Evolution 60: 12911299.