• Antirrhinum majus;
  • chloroplast DNA;
  • contact zone;
  • genetic introgression;
  • haplotype sharing


Assessing processes of geographic expansion in contact zones is a crucial step towards an accurate prediction of the evolution of species genetic diversity. The geographic distribution of cytonuclear discordance often reflects genetic introgression patterns across a species geographic range. Antirrhinum majus pseudomajus and A. m. striatum are two interfertile subspecies that occupy nonoverlapping areas but enter in contact in many locations at the margin of their geographic distribution. We found that genetic introgression between both subspecies was asymmetric at the local scale and geographically oriented in opposite directions at both ends of their contact zone perimeter in the Pyrenees. Our results suggest that the geographic expansion of A. majus subspecies was circular around the perimeter of their contact zone and pinpoint the need to integrate different spatial scales to unravel complex patterns of species geographic expansion.