Sperm competition theory predicts that under high risk of sperm competition, males will increase the number of sperm that they allocate to a female. This prediction has been supported by some experimental studies but not by others. Here, I conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether the increase in sperm allocation under high risk of sperm competition is a generalized response across taxa. I collected data from 39 studies and 37 species. Across taxa, males under a high risk of sperm competition respond by increasing their sperm allocation (mean effect size = 0.32). Number of offspring did not explain a significant portion of the variation in effect sizes. A traditional meta-analysis (i.e. without phylogenetic information) described the variation among effect sizes better than a meta-analysis that incorporates the phylogenetic relationships among species, suggesting that the increase in sperm allocation under high risk of sperm competition is similarly prevalent across taxa.