Present address: Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Population structure in relation to host-plant ecology and Wolbachia infestation in the comma butterfly
Article first published online: 11 JUL 2011
© 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology
Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Volume 24, Issue 10, pages 2173–2185, October 2011
How to Cite
KODANDARAMAIAH, U., WEINGARTNER, E., JANZ, N., DALÉN, L. and NYLIN, S. (2011), Population structure in relation to host-plant ecology and Wolbachia infestation in the comma butterfly. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 24: 2173–2185. doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2011.02352.x
- Issue published online: 12 SEP 2011
- Article first published online: 11 JUL 2011
- Received 14 October 2010; revised 26 May 2011; accepted 30 May 2011
- Polygonia c-album;
- single refugium;
Experimental work on Polygonia c-album, a temperate polyphagous butterfly species, has shown that Swedish, Belgian, Norwegian and Estonian females are generalists with respect to host-plant preference, whereas females from UK and Spain are specialized on Urticaceae. Female preference is known to have a strong genetic component. We test whether the specialist and generalist populations form respective genetic clusters using data from mitochondrial sequences and 10 microsatellite loci. Results do not support this hypothesis, suggesting that the specialist and generalist traits have evolved more than once independently. Mitochondrial DNA variation suggests a rapid expansion scenario, with a single widespread haplotype occurring in high frequency, whereas microsatellite data indicate strong differentiation of the Moroccan population. Based on a comparison of polymorphism in the mitochondrial data and sequences from a nuclear gene, we show that the diversity in the former is significantly less than that expected under neutral evolution. Furthermore, we found that almost all butterfly samples were infected with a single strain of Wolbachia, a maternally inherited bacterium. We reason that indirect selection on the mitochondrial genome mediated by a recent sweep of Wolbachia infection has depleted variability in the mitochondrial sequences. We also surmise that P. c-album could have expanded out of a single glacial refugium and colonized Morocco recently.