Selection in a fluctuating environment leads to decreased genetic variation and facilitates the evolution of phenotypic plasticity
Article first published online: 23 APR 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology
Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Volume 25, Issue 7, pages 1275–1290, July 2012
How to Cite
HALLSSON, L. R. and BJÖRKLUND, M. (2012), Selection in a fluctuating environment leads to decreased genetic variation and facilitates the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 25: 1275–1290. doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2012.02512.x
- Issue published online: 12 JUN 2012
- Article first published online: 23 APR 2012
- Received 8 July 2011; accepted 12 March 2012
- 1996. Environment-dependence of quantitative genetic parameters in Impatiens pallida. Evolution 50: 1083–1097. &
- 2004. Keeping pace with fast climate change: can Arctic life count on evolution? Integr. Comp. Biol. 44: 140–151.
- 2007a. The genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism: the potential roles of genomic imprinting and condition dependence. In: Sex Size and Gender Roles Evolutionary Studies of Sexual Size Dimorphism (D.J. Fairbairn, W.U. Blanckenhorn & T. Szekely eds), pp. 176–184, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- 2007b. The evolution of condition-dependent sexual dimorphism. Am. Nat. 169: 9–19.
- 2006. Demography in an increasingly variable world. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21: 141–148. , &
- 2000. High stressful temperature and genetic variation of five quantitative traits in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica 110: 79–85. &
- 1980. The Mathematical Theory of Quantitative Genetics. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
- 1995. Evolution and extinction in a changing environment: a quantitative-genetic analysis. Evolution 49: 151–163. &
- 1985. The quantitative assessment of phylogenetic constraints in comparative analyses: sexual dimorphism in body weight among primates. Evolution 39: 1335–1351. , &
- 2010. When do adaptive plasticity and genetic evolution prevent extinction of a density-regulated population? Evolution 64: 1143–1150. &
- 2004. A Primer of Ecological Genetics 2004. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. &
- 1986. Relationship between larval density, adult size and egg production in the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Ecol. Entomol. 11: 41–50. , &
- 1964. The effect of continued selection of phenotypic intermediates on gene frequency. Genet. Res. 5: 341–353.
- 2006. Experimental evolution of phenotypic plasticity: how predictive are cross-environment genetic correlations? Am. Nat. 168: 323–335. , &
- 2001. Range shifts and adaptive responses to Quaternary climate change. Science 292: 673–679. &
- 2005. Evolutionary responses to changing climate. Ecology 86: 1704–1714. , &
- 1999. Unpredictable selection in a structured population leads to local genetic differentiation in evolved reaction norms. J. Evol. Biol. 12: 839–851.
- 2005. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity: patterns of plasticity and the emergence of ecotypes. New Phytol. 166: 101–117.
- 2000. Maintenance of genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity: the role of environmental variation. Genet. Res. 76: 295–304. &
- 2002. Analysing phenotypic variation: when old-fashioned means up-to-date. J. Biosci. 27: 191–193. &
- 1998. Costs and limits of phenotypic plasticity. Trends Ecol. Evol. 13: 77–81. , &
- 1986. Natural Selection in the Wild. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
- 1996. Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. Longman, Harlow, UK. &
- 1930. The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
- 2005. The evolutionary genetics of canalization. Q. Rev. Biol. 80: 287–316.
- 1994. A quantitative-genetic model for selection on developmental noise. Evolution 48: 1478–1486. &
- 1993. The genetics of phenotypic plasticity. V. Evolution of reaction norm shape. J. Evol. Biol. 6: 31–48. &
- 2008. Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic responses. Mol. Ecol. 17: 167–178. , , , &
- 1998. Phenotypic plasticity, genotype-by-environment interaction and the analysis of generalism and specialization in Callosobruchus maculatus. Heredity 81: 198–204. &
- 1997. The effect of novel environment and sex on the additive genetic variation and covariation in and between emergence body weight and development period in the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). Heredity 78: 158–165. , &
- 2010. MCMC methods for multi-response generalized linear mixed models: the MCMCglmm R Package. J. Stat. Softw. 33: 1–22.
- 2011. Course notes, MCMCglmm. Retrieved from http://stat.ethz.ch/CRAN/web/packages/MCMCglmm/.
- 1996. Ecology, evolution and 1 f -noise. Trends Ecol. Evol. 11: 33–37.
- 2006. The evolution of genetic architecture. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 37: 123–157.
- 2004. The population genetic theory of hidden variation and genetic robustness. Genetics 168: 2271–2284. &
- 1999. Heritable variation and evolution under favourable and unfavourable conditions. Trends Ecol. Evol. 14: 96–101. &
- 1991. Evolutionary Genetics and Environmental Stress. Oxford University Press, Oxford. &
- 1990. The effect of new environment on adapted genetic architecture. Heredity 64: 323–330. , &
- 1992. Analysis of adaptation in heterogeneous landscapes: implications for the evolution of fundamental niches. Evol. Ecol. 6: 433–447. &
- 1992. Comparing evolvability and variability of quantitative traits. Genetics 130: 195–204.
- 2011. Speeding up microevolution: the effects of increasing temperature on selection and genetic variance in a wild bird population. PLoS Biol. 9: e1000585. , &
- 1997. Effects of extreme temperatures on phenotypic variation and developmental stability in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila buzzatii. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 61: 117–126.
- 2001. Investigating long-term ecological variability using the global population dynamics database. Science 293: 655–657. &
- 2003. On the relation between temporal variability and persistence time in animal populations. J. Anim. Ecol. 72: 899–908. &
- 1995. The adaptive advantage of phenotypic memory in changing environments. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 350: 133–141. , , , , &
- 1995. Expression of genetic and environmental variation for life history characters on the usual and novel hosts in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Heredity 75: 70–76.
- 2000. The evolution of genetic canalization under fluctuating selection. Evolution 54: 1–12.
- 2003. A developmental perspective on developmental instability: theory, models, and mechanisms. In: Developmental Instability: Causes and Consequences (M. Polak, ed.), pp. 14–34. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- 2004. Phenotypic variation and developmental instability of life-history traits: a theory and a case study on within-population variation of resting eggs formation in Daphnia. Ecology 63: 37–44. &
- 2009. Adaptation to an extraordinary environment by evolution of phenotypic plasticity and genetic assimilation. J. Evol. Biol. 22: 1435–1446.
- 2000. Population variability in space and time. Trends Ecol. Evol. 15: 460–464. , , &
- 1998. Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits. Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland, MA. &
- 1943. Polygenic inheritance and natural selection. Biol. Rev. 18: 32–64.
- 1998. Plasticity, memory and the adaptive landscape of the genotype. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 265: 1319–1323.
- 2010. Evolution of variation and variability under fluctuating, stabilizing, and disruptive selection. Evolution 64: 1912–1925. , , &
- 2002. Evolutionary responses of Drosophila melanogaster to selection at different larval densities: changes in genetic variation, specialization and phenotypic plasticity. J. Evol. Biol. 15: 524–536. &
- 1996. How organisms respond to environmental changes: from phenotypes to molecules (and vice versa). Trends Ecol. Evol. 11: 168–173.
- 2001. Phenotypic Plasticity: Beyond Nature and Nurture. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
- 1995. Reaction norms of Arabidopsis. II. Response to stress and unordered environmental variation. Funct. Ecol. 9: 537–547. , &
- 2005. A regulatory network analysis of phenotypic plasticity in yeast. Am. Nat. 165: 515–523.
- 2000. Climatic effects on breeding and morphology: evidence for phenotypic plasticity. J. Anim. Ecol. 69: 395–403. , &
- 2004. Microevolutionary response to climate change. Adv. Ecol. Res. 35: 149–181. &
- R Development Core Team 2011. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/ .
- 2003. Inbreeding, developmental stability, and canalization in the sand cricket Gryllus Firmus. Evolution 57: 597–605. &
- 2003a. Genetic and plastic responses of a northern mammal to climate change. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 270: 591–596. , , &
- 2003b. Lifetime selection on heritable life-history traits in a natural population of red squirrels. Evolution 57: 2416–2423. , , &
- 2010. Phenotypic plasticity and population viability: the importance of environmental predictability. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 277: 3391–3400. , , , &
- 2002. Costs of phenotypic plasticity. Am. Nat. 159: 272–282.
- 1996. Noise colour and the risk of population extinctions. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 263: 1751–1753. &
- 1955. Selection in animals: synthesis. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 20: 225–229.
- 2004. From the reactions norm to the evolution of adaptive plasticity: a historical sketch, 1909–1999. In: Phenotypic Plasticity: Functional and Conceptual Approaches (T.J. DeWitt & S.M. Scheiner eds), pp. 10–30, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- 1993. Genetics and evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 24: 35–68.
- 2010. Interactive effects of temporal correlations, spatial heterogeneity and dispersal on population persistence. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 277: 1907–1914.
- 1998. Heritable variation for fecundity in field-collected Drosophila melanogaster and their offspring reared under different environmental temperatures. Evolution 52: 134–143. &
- 1993. The effect of selection on the phenotypic variance. Genetics 134: 995–996. &
- 1995. The differential genetic and environmental canalization of fitness components in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Evol. Biol. 8: 539–557. , &
- 1985. A comparison of terrestrial and marine ecological systems. Nature 313: 355–358.
- 2007. Phenotypic plasticity in a complex world: interactive effects of food and temperature on fitness components of a seed beetle. Oecologia 153: 309–321. , , &
- 2010. Sex differences in phenotypic plasticity affect variation in sexual size dimorphism in insects: from physiology to evolution. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 55: 227–245. , , , &
- 2007. Correlated responses to artificial body size selection in growth, development, phenotypic plasticity and juvenile viability in yellow dung flies. J. Evol. Biol. 20: 87–103. , &
- 2005. Recent evolutionary effects of climate change. In: Climate Change and Biodiversity (T. Lovejoy & L. Hannah eds), pp. 75–90. Yale University Press, Cambridge, MA.
- 2010. The genetic signature of conditional expression. Genetics 184: 557–570. &
- 1994. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity: what do we really know? In: Ecol Gen (L.R. Real ed.), pp. 35–57. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NY.
- 1985. Genotype-environment interaction and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Evolution 39: 505–522. &
- 1995. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity: consensus and controversy. Trends Ecol. Evol. 10: 212–217. , , , , &
- 1940. Organisers and Genes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- 1942. Canalization of development and the inheritance of acquired characters. Nature 150: 563–565.
- 1957. The Strategy of the Genes. Macmillan, New York.
- 1997. A population genetic theory of canalization. Evolution 51: 329–347. , &
- 2010. An ecologist’s guide to the animal model. J. Anim. Ecol. 79: 13–26. , , , , , et al.
- 2004. Genetics and mechanics of plasticity. In: Phenotypic Plasticity: Functional and Conceptual Approaches (T.J. DeWitt & S.M. Scheiner eds), pp. 31–49. Oxford University Press, Oxford. , &
- 2005. Evolution and maintenance of the environmental component of the phenotypic variance: benefit of plastic traits under changing environments. Am. Nat. 166: 569–580.
- 2005. Evolution of the environmental component of the phenotypic variance; stabilizing selection in changing environments and the cost of homogeneity. Evolution 59: 1237. &