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jeb2569-sup-AppendixS1-FigS1-S2-TableS1-S4.docWord document608KAppendix S1 Supplementary methods. Figure S1 Topology of the phylogenetic tree used in the Bayesian phylogenetic mixed-effects meta-analysis models. Figure S2 Funnel plots of original effect sizes (log Odds Ratio; lnOR) plotted against their corresponding precision (the square root of sample size). Table S1 Studies that reported data on the effectiveness of experimental manipulation in changing parental effort. Table S2 Studies that were found in our literature search but were excluded from our meta-analysis because they did not comply with our inclusion criteria. Table S3 Studies used in our meta-analyses of the trade-off between parental effort and survival in birds. Table S4 Results of the Bayesian mixed-effect models including the variable ‘Type of Manipulation’ as a fixed effect.

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