Abstract. Neonatal and antenatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is induced by maternal antibodies against platelet-specific fetal antigens. This disease is rare but potentially severe because of intracranial bleedings which may occur during pregnancy or around birth. In the last decade our knowledge of this disorder has markedly advanced. New techniques are used in platelet immunology. New platelet antigens involved in these perinatal thrombocytope-nias have recently been discovered. A group of women likely to produce the responsible platelet antibodies has been genetically defined as regards the PLA1 antigen. The quality of the sonographies and the possibility of performing cord vein puncture in early pregnancy afford a new approach in the management of perinatal alloimmune thrombo-cytopenias. But more must be done to prevent the complications of this disease.