Aetiological factors related to a positive direct antiglobulin test result in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients
Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2006
Volume 90, Issue 4, pages 325–330, May 2006
How to Cite
Lai, M., D’Onofrio, G., Visconti, E., Tamburrini, E., Cauda, R. and Leone, G. (2006), Aetiological factors related to a positive direct antiglobulin test result in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Vox Sanguinis, 90: 325–330. doi: 10.1111/j.1423-0410.2006.00755.x
- Issue online: 8 MAR 2006
- Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2006
- Received: 2 January 2006, revised 4 January 2006, accepted 5 January 2006
Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the clinical importance and causes of a positive result in the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) in human immunodeficiency virus-infected (HIV+) patients. We therefore studied haematological parameters in outpatient samples, and also analysed the impact of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on the DAT results.
Study Design and Methods Haematological parameters, clinical stages, chemo-antibiotic treatments and HAART treatment were studied to determine any relationships with DAT results in 115 consecutive HIV+ patients.
Results Significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb) levels were detected in patients with HIV who had a positive DAT result. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection (odds ratio 2·529) and trimethoprim-suphamethoxazfole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis (odds ratio 3·751) had a significant association with DAT positivity. Patients receiving HAART were less likely to have a positive DAT [odds ratio (OR) 0·383; P = 0·035]. Among the patients treated with TMP-SMX, those with a positive DAT had lower Hb levels (11·9 g/dl) than those with a negative DAT (14·2 g/dl; P = 0·04). HCV antibody positivity and TMP-SMX prophylaxis showed a cumulative effect on positive DATs (OR 4·533). The surface exploratory analysis indicated the distribution of the positive DATs in relationship with the CD4+ count and Hb levels.
Conclusions Significantly lower Hb levels were detected in DAT-positive HIV+ patients. HCV co-infection and TMP-SMX prophylaxis appear to confer an increased risk of DAT positivity. The presence of red blood cell autoantibodies may be associated with anaemia in HIV disease in the absence of overt haemolysis.