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Keywords:

  • biochemical characterization;
  • Gammagard SD;
  • intravenous immunoglobulin;
  • liquid IGIV;
  • preclinical characterization.

Background and Objectives  The ultimate goal was to generate an industrial-scale process suitable to produce a high-yield, safe and stable immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparation for intravenous administration, which is ready to use for customer convenience. This new liquid 10% IgG preparation (IGIV 10%) was compared to Gammagard SD, a licenced lyophilized immunoglobulin in biochemical and preclinical testing.

Materials and Methods  The new process, which includes three dedicated virus clearance steps, is a streamlined combination of the currently applied and well-established manufacturing procedures. The biochemical characterization is done by standard methods focusing on purity, integrity and functionality of the preparation. Efficacy is demonstrated in vivo by mouse protection testing and in vitro by opsonization and protein A affinity chromatography. Pharmacokinetics in rats is evaluated after a single intravenous dose. The anaphylactoid potential is determined in rats and in guinea pigs, while thrombogenicity is assessed in a rabbit model. The influence of the products on vital functions is tested on dogs, while acute toxicity studies are carried out on mice and rats.

Results  The biochemical characterization data demonstrate the high purity of monomeric IgG in the product. The mouse protection test showed that the protective activity against systemic bacterial infections of IGIV 10% is at least as good as the reference Gammagard SD. This result is supported by the broad spectrum of antibodies in high titres against bacteria and viruses and the high functional integrity of the IgG molecule (≥ 90% functionally intact IgG) in IGIV 10%. The opsonic activity of all IGIV 10% lots is similar to the one of the reference Gammagard SD. In safety and thrombogenicity studies, no adverse effects of IGIV 10% were observed. Pharmacokinetic studies showed no statistically significant differences between the two products. In the acute toxicity animal studies, IGIV 10% compared favourably to the reference Gammagard SD.

Conclusions  The new manufacturing process enables the production of a highly purified IgG preparation for intravenous administration. The product has an IgG subclass distribution similar to plasma and contains a broad spectrum of functionally intact antibodies. Preclinical studies demonstrate that the liquid IGIV 10% combines excellent qualities of efficacy, safety and tolerability.