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Use of the DiaMed Impact R to test platelet function in stored platelet concentrates

Authors


: A. Morrison, Products and Components R&D group, National Science Laboratory, Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service, 21 Ellen's Glen Road, Edinburgh EH17 7QT, UK
E-mail: alex.morrison@snbts.csa.scot.nhs.uk

Abstract

Background and Objectives The DiaMed Impact R tests platelet function under close to physiological flow conditions using cone and plate technology. An image analyser quantifies the adhered platelets and results are expressed as percentage of well surface covered by aggregates (SC %) as an index of adhesion and average size of the aggregates (AS µm2) as an index of aggregation. The machine is designed to use whole blood and the aim of this study was to determine if it could be used to assess platelet function in platelet concentrates (PC).

Material and Methods  Platelet concentrates were mixed with various ratios of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) or ABO-compatible routine leucoreduced red cells in saline–adenine–glucose–mannitol. The effects of platelet counts, haematocrit, shear rate and time of activation upon SC and AS were evaluated to identify optimized assay conditions. Routine PCs were then tested on Days 2, 5 and 7. Samples were also stored at 4 or 37 °C for 1 to 2 h before assay to see if function was altered.

Results  Platelet concentrate in PPP resulted in no detectable platelet adhesion. However, addition of red cells to PC resulted in measurable platelet adhesion and aggregation. Optimal conditions were identified as shear rate of 1800 per second, 4-min activation, platelet count between 250 and 400 × 106 per ml, haematocrit between 30 and 40%. When stored PCs were tested under these conditions we observed median values of 8·2% for SC and 32·7 µm2 for AS at 2 days, which reduced to 6.9% and 25·0 µm2, respectively, after 5-day storage and 6·8% and 21·0 µm2 after 7 days.

Conclusion  We were able to reconstitute PCs by adding red cells and identified conditions to allow platelet adhesion and aggregation functions of PCs to be measurable in the DiaMed Impact R. Platelet functions of adhesion and aggregation were shown to decrease during storage but improved after a 1-h treatment at 37 °C.

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