Objective This review describes alloantigens currently listed in the human neutrophil alloantigen (HNA) system.
Material and Methods Review of the literature.
Results Neutrophil antigens are implicated in a variety of clinical conditions including neonatal immune neutropenia, transfusion-related acute lung injury, refractoriness to granulocyte transfusions, febrile transfusion reactions, immune neutropenia after bone marrow transplantation, autoimmune neutropenia and drug-induced immune neutropenia. Seven antigens have been listed in the HNA system that are assigned to five antigen groups. Six antigens have been characterized biochemically and molecularly so that their primary structure is now known. As shown by regularly performed international granulocyte immunology workshops, a combination of granulocyte agglutination and immunofluorescence tests together with a panel of typed cells is currently the best means of detection.
Conclusions Most of the HNA antigens have been well-characterized so that HNA typing as well as the detection of the corresponding antibodies are now reliably possible. This will improve diagnostics of neutrophil antibody-mediated clinical conditions as well as the prevention of transfusion-related acute lung injury.