Background and Objectives G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells have long replaced marrow as the major source for allogeneic transplants. Conclusive evidence questioning the long-term safety of G-CSF for donors has not been provided, but the cumulative number of followed donors remains insufficient to rule out rare adverse events. A long-term active follow-up study of G-CSF-mobilized healthy volunteer donors was therefore performed.
Patients and Methods Two hundred and three successive donors were evaluated pre-apheresis, subjected to G-CSF-mobilization/apheresis, and actively followed for 5 years by the same physicians and laboratories. Follow-up laboratory work included standard biochemical/haematological tests and T-cell phenotyping.
Results Donor epidemiology was typical for reported stem cell donor cohorts. Acute adverse effects of G-CSF and apheresis were mild and transient, consistent with the previous reports. Mean circulating CD34+ cells after nine doses of G-CSF were 124 per μl. Other biochemical/haematological parameters were also altered, consistent with G-CSF treatment. Spleen enlargement was modest. At first follow-up, all clinical and laboratory parameters had normalized. Leucocyte/lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 ratios were the same as during premobilization work-up and remained unchanged throughout. A single severe but likely unrelated adverse event, a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma, was reported.
Conclusion The studies add an observation time of almost 500 donor years to the growing body of evidence of the long-term safety of G-CSF for allogeneic donor stem cell mobilization.