Abstract. In hydra the differentiation of head-specific ectodermal epithelial cells from multipotent stem cells is a multistep process in which cell cycle progression is regulated at three restriction points. Head activator acts as a positive signal at these restriction points. At the G2/mitosis boundary of epithelial stem cells head activator functions as a mitogen, being necessary for cell division. Subsequently, in or before S phase, head activator acts as determinant to ensure commitment of epithelial cells to head-specific determination. This effect of head activator requires hundredfold-higher concentrations, and may also require longer incubation times, than for cell proliferation. Epithelial cells thus committed to head-specific differentiation become arrested in G2 as a third and last restriction point in the cell cycle. They require disinhibition by decapitation and probably the presence of head activator for final differentiation, which then occurs in G2.