Tumor–host interactions contribute to the elevated expression level of α1-antichymotrypsin in metastatic breast tumor xenografts

Authors

  • Valerie Montel,

    1. Department of Pathology and Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC0912, La Jolla, CA 92093-0912, USA
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  • Kersi Pestonjamasp,

    1. Department of Pathology and Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC0912, La Jolla, CA 92093-0912, USA
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      Fax: +1 858 822 2084
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  • Evangeline Mose,

    1. Department of Pathology and Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC0912, La Jolla, CA 92093-0912, USA
      Tel: +1 858 822 2081
      Fax: +1 858 822 2084
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  • David Tarin

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Pathology and Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive MC0912, La Jolla, CA 92093-0912, USA
      Tel: +1 858 822 2081
      Fax: +1 858 822 2084
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✉ E-mail: dtarin@ucsd.edu

Abstract

Abstract We investigated α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) gene expression in xenograft tumors generated by two isogenic human breast cancer cell lines derived from the same parent, MDA-MB-435, which display opposite metastatic behaviors. Microarray and real-time PCR experiments showed an overexpression of this serine protease inhibitor in the metastatic tumors (M-4A4T) and its derived metastases (M4-Mets) compared with the weakly metastatic tumors (NM-2C5T), and its release into the blood was confirmed by western-blotting. However, functional assays in vivo using genetically engineered tumor cells demonstrated that ACT up-regulation was not, by itself, responsible for the metastatic phenotype. We also made observations that ACT gene regulation was sensitive to tumor–host interactions: inoculation of these lines into the mouse mammary gland greatly increased ACT production and accentuated the intrinsic difference observed when they are cultured in vitro. Sensitivity of tumor cells to their environment was further analyzed by in vitro experiments, which demonstrated that a purified ECM environment and soluble components from normal host mammary cells were both able to significantly promote ACT expression. In addition, we took advantage of the xenogeneic nature of the model to measure ACT expression by the host cells (mouse) and the tumor cells (human) within the neoplasm using species-specific primers in real-time PCR experiments. It was found that the presence of tumor cells, irrespective of their metastatic capabilities, induced local ACT production by host cells at the primary and secondary tumor sites. Thus, this work indicates that there is a specific association of ACT overexpression with the metastatic phenotype in our breast cancer metastasis model. Moreover, because of the xenogeneic nature of our system, we were able to provide evidence of tumor–host reciprocal regulation of ACT production.

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