• RNA remodeling;
  • RNA localization;
  • RNP complex;
  • cell polarity;
  • post-transcriptional control

Abstract Cytoplasmic RNA localization is a means to create polarity by restricting protein expression to a discrete subcellular location. RNA localization is a multistep process that begins with the recognition of cis-acting sequences within the RNA by specific trans-factors, and RNAs are localized in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that contain both the RNA and numerous protein components. Components of the localization machinery transport the RNP complex, usually in a translationally repressed state, to a distinct subcellular region, resulting in spatially restricted gene expression. Recent efforts to identify both the cis- and trans-factors required for RNA localization have elucidated RNA–protein interactions that are remodeled during localization.