Three inducible bacteriolytic proteins, designated P7, P9A and P9B, from the hemolymph of immunized pupae of the giant silk moth Hyalophora cecropia have been purified using a two-step procedure with cation-exchange chromatography. Purified protein P7 has a molecular weight of 15000 and its amino acid composition shows a great similarity to that of the lysozyme from the wax moth Galleria mellonella. Moreover, heat stability, pH-rate profile and bacteriolytic specificity also indicate that protein P7 is a lysozyme. The other purified proteins, P9A and P9B, are highly potent against Escherichia coli and some other gram-negative bacteria. The amino acid compositions of proteins P9A and P9B are very similar, although the contents of glutamic acid and methionine were different. The molecular weights of these very basic proteins are around 7000. The P9 proteins are heat stable; their activities were retained after 30 min incubation at 100°C. Both forms of protein P9 clearly differ from the lysozyme class of enzymes and they may represent a new type of bacteriolytic protein.